Všechny publikace

Toward Benchmarking of Long-Term Spatio-Temporal Maps of Pedestrian Flows for Human-Aware Navigation

  • DOI: 10.3389/frobt.2022.890013
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.3389/frobt.2022.890013
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Centrum umělé inteligence
  • Anotace:
    Despite the advances in mobile robotics, the introduction of autonomous robots in human-populated environments is rather slow. One of the fundamental reasons is the acceptance of robots by people directly affected by a robot's presence. Understanding human behavior and dynamics is essential for planning when and how robots should traverse busy environments without disrupting people's natural motion and causing irritation. Research has exploited various techniques to build spatio-temporal representations of people's presence and flows and compared their applicability to plan optimal paths in the future. Many comparisons of how dynamic map-building techniques show how one method compares on a dataset versus another, but without consistent datasets and high-quality comparison metrics, it is difficult to assess how these various methods compare as a whole and in specific tasks. This article proposes a methodology for creating high-quality criteria with interpretable results for comparing long-term spatio-temporal representations for human-aware path planning and human-aware navigation scheduling. Two criteria derived from the methodology are then applied to compare the representations built by the techniques found in the literature. The approaches are compared on a real-world, long-term dataset, and the conception is validated in a field experiment on a robotic platform deployed in a human-populated environment. Our results indicate that continuous spatio-temporal methods independently modeling spatial and temporal phenomena outperformed other modeling approaches. Our results provide a baseline for future work to compare a wide range of methods employed for long-term navigation and provide researchers with an understanding of how these various methods compare in various scenarios.

Towards Fast Fiducial Marker with full 6 DOF Pose Estimation

  • DOI: 10.1145/3477314.3507043
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3477314.3507043
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Centrum umělé inteligence
  • Anotace:
    This paper proposes a new method for the full 6 degrees of free- dom pose estimation of a circular fiducial marker. This circular black-and-white planar marker provides a unique and versatile identification of individual markers while maintaining a real-time detection. Such a marker and the vision localisation system based on it is suitable for both external and self-localisation. Together with an off-the-shelf camera, the marker aims to provide a sufficient pose estimation accuracy to substitute the current high-end locali sation systems. In order to assess the performance of our proposed marker system, we evaluate its capabilities against the current state of-the-art methods in terms of their ability to estimate the 2D and 3D positions. For such purpose, a real-world dataset, inspired by typical applications in mobile and swarm robotics, was collected as the performance under the real conditions provides better insights into the method’s potential than an artificially simulated environ ment. The experiments performed show that the method presented here achieved three times the accuracy of the marker it was derived from.

Bio-inspired Artificial Pheromone System for Swarm Robotics Applications

  • DOI: 10.1177/1059712320918936
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1177/1059712320918936
  • Pracoviště: Centrum umělé inteligence
  • Anotace:
    Pheromones are chemical substances released into the environment by an individual animal, which elicit stereotyped behaviours widely found across the animal kingdom. Inspired by the effective use of pheromones in social insects, pheromonal communication has been adopted to swarm robotics domain using diverse approaches such as alcohol, RFID tags and light. COS phi is one of the light-based artificial pheromone systems which can emulate realistic pheromones and environment properties through the system. This article provides a significant improvement to the state-of-the-art by proposing a novel artificial pheromone system that simulates pheromones with environmental effects by adopting a model of spatio-temporal development of pheromone derived from a flow of fluid in nature. Using the proposed system, we investigated the collective behaviour of a robot swarm in a bio-inspired aggregation scenario, where robots aggregated on a circular pheromone cue with different environmental factors, that is, diffusion and pheromone shift. The results demonstrated the feasibility of the proposed pheromone system for use in swarm robotic applications.

CHRONOROBOTICS: Representing the Structure of Time for Service Robots

  • DOI: 10.1145/3440084.3441195
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3440084.3441195
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Centrum umělé inteligence
  • Anotace:
    Chronorobotics is the investigation of scientific methods allowing robots to adapt to and learn from the perpetual changes occurring in natural and human-populated environments. We present methods that can introduce the notion of dynamics into spatial environment models, resulting in representations which provide service robots with the ability to predict future states of changing environments. Several long-term experiments indicate that the aforementioned methods gradually improve the efficiency of robots' autonomous operations over time. More importantly, the experiments indicate that chronorobotic concepts improve robots' ability to seamlessly merge into human-populated environments, which is important for their integration and acceptance in human societies

Natural Criteria for Comparison of Pedestrian Flow Forecasting Models

  • DOI: 10.1109/IROS45743.2020.9341672
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/IROS45743.2020.9341672
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Centrum umělé inteligence
  • Anotace:
    Models of human behaviour, such as pedestrian flows, are beneficial for safe and efficient operation of mobile robots. We present a new methodology for benchmarking of pedestrian flow models based on the afforded safety of robot navigation in human-populated environments. While previous evaluations of pedestrian flow models focused on their predictive capabilities, we assess their ability to support safe path planning and scheduling. Using real-world datasets gathered continuously over several weeks, we benchmark state-of-the-art pedestrian flow models, including both time-averaged and time-sensitive models. In the evaluation, we use the learned models to plan robot trajectories and then observe the number of times when the robot gets too close to humans, using a predefined social distance threshold. The experiments show that while traditional evaluation criteria based on model fidelity differ only marginally, the introduced criteria vary significantly depending on the model used, providing a natural interpretation of the expected safety of the system. For the time-averaged flow models, the number of encounters increases linearly with the percentage operating time of the robot, as might be reasonably expected. By contrast, for the time-sensitive models, the number of encounters grows sublinearly with the percentage operating time, by planning to avoid congested areas and times.

Adaptive Image Processing Methods for Outdoor Autonomous Vehicles

  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-14984-0_34
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-14984-0_34
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Centrum umělé inteligence
  • Anotace:
    This paper concerns adaptive image processing for visual teach-and-repeat navigation systems of autonomous vehicles operating outdoors. The robustness and the accuracy of these systems rely on their ability to extract relevant information from the on-board camera images, which is then used for the autonomous navigation and the map building. In this paper, we present methods that allow an image-based navigation system to adapt to a varying appearance of outdoor environments caused by dynamic illumination conditions and naturally occurring environment changes. In the performed experiments, we demonstrate that the adaptive and the learning methods for camera parameter control, image feature extraction and environment map refinement allow autonomous vehicles to operate in real, changing world for extended periods of time.

Time-varying Pedestrian Flow Models for Service Robots

  • DOI: 10.1109/ECMR.2019.8870909
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ECMR.2019.8870909
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Centrum umělé inteligence
  • Anotace:
    We present a human-centric spatiotemporal model for service robots operating in densely populated environments for long time periods. The method integrates observations of pedestrians performed by a mobile robot at different locations and times into a memory efficient model, that represents the spatial layout of natural pedestrian flows and how they change over time. To represent temporal variations of the observed flows, our method does not model the time in a linear fashion, but by several dimensions wrapped into themselves. This representation of time can capture long-term (i.e. days to weeks) periodic patterns of peoples' routines and habits. Knowledge of these patterns allows making long-term predictions of future human presence and walking directions, which can support mobile robot navigation in human-populated environments. Using datasets gathered for several weeks, we compare the model to state-of-the-art methods for pedestrian flow modelling.

Za stránku zodpovídá: Ing. Mgr. Radovan Suk