Disabled people can benefit greatly from assistive digital technologies. However, this increased human-machine symbiosis makes it important that systems are personalized and transparent to users. Existing work often uses data-oriented approaches. However, these approaches lack transparency and make it hard to influence the system’s behavior. In this paper, we use knowledge-based techniques for personalization, introducing the concept of Semantic User Models for representing the behavior, values and capabilities of users. To allow the system to construct such a user model, we investigate the use of a conversational agent which can elicit the relevant information from users through dialogue. A conversational interface is essential for our case study of navigation support for visually impaired people, but in general, has the potential to enhance transparency as users know what the system represents about them. For such a dialogue to be effective, it is crucial that the user understands what the conversational agent is asking, i.e., that misalignments that decrease the transparency are avoided or resolved. In this paper, we investigate whether we can use a conversational agent for Semantic User Model elicitation, which types of misalignments can occur in this process and how they are related, and how misalignments can be reduced. We investigate this in two (iterative) qualitative studies (n = 7 & n = 8) with visually impaired people in which a personalized user model for navigation support is elicited via a dialogue with a conversational agent. Our results show four hierarchically structured levels of human-agent misalignment. We identify several design solutions for reducing misalignments, which point to the need for restricting the generic user model to what is needed in the domain under consideration. With this research, we lay a foundation for conversational agents capable of eliciting Semantic User Models.
Towards understanding spatial illusions in architecture - a pilot study exploring factors influencing illusive perspectives
Illusive perspectives (forced perspectives) have been used in art and architecture to create certain space perceptions (e.g., let built space appear larger or deeper), space illusions (e.g., let persons or objects in certain positions appear larger or distorted) and artificial effects (e.g., nudge the visitor to stand at a certain position, i.e., forced perspective). To induce these spatial visual illusions, built spaces like hallways have been constructed such that visual cues induce increased depth if perceived by the visitor from a certain position.
In our study, our aim was to determine how the properties of a distorted hallway (e.g., angle of the walls, amount of distortion) influence the perceived illusory space. We created a simplifiedVR model of an illusive hallway inspired by a historical example designed by Italian architect Francesco Borromini, and conducted a qualitative pilot study.
We propose a new coating for light projection on transparent materials that can open new possibilities for design. What we often struggle with is the lighting of clear glass. By definition, clear glass lets most of the light pass through. We have found a way to turn glass surfaces opaque or transparent by using ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence coating. In combination with a UVA light source, we can project the dynamic content onto a glass surface treated with a special coating that transforms the UVA light into visible light. The added benefit of such a coating is that it can be applied to any organically shaped surface using a spray gun, not just flat surfaces. Another advantage is that the light source is nearly invisible to the human eye, especially with a UV light pass-through filter. We have created a prototype with a modified overhead projector to measure the light characteristics and documented the steps to reproduce our results.
Spatial audio offers new expressive means to music composers. Spatial audio technology is well supported in web browsers for desktop and mobiles platforms alike . However, the spatial audio is only marginally represented in web music industry. Most of the online streaming platforms such as Spotify, YouTube or Soundcloud use predominantly stereo format for playback. We propose a new easy to use web-based spatial audio player. We also propose spatial audio encoding using existing audio codecs and discuss the practical implementation. Evaluation of the player was conducted using qualitative user research and by logging measurable data during listening. We aim to democratize the use of spatial audio on the web for non-expert users.
Interactive Tactile Map as a Tool for Building Spatial Knowledge of Visually Impaired Older Adults
We present an interactive tactile map tailored for older
adults with vision impairments, which should help them to
acquire spatial knowledge of complex indoor environments,
like a residential care home. Interestingly current research
largely omits visually impaired older adults. As the outcome
of our iterative design process, we introduced the design of
the tactile map that employs haptically salient key objects
and large touch-sensitive segments along with the routeguidance
function. Route-guidance function enriches the
tactile map with the desired route information to support the
route knowledge acquisition. Qualitative evaluation (mean
age was 81.4 years) indicates the ability of our concept to
help our audience building spatial knowledge of the indoor
Exploration of older drivers interaction with conversation assistant
Proceedings of the Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 2019. p. 881-889. ISSN 2325-0348. ISBN 978-83-952357-8-8.
The number of older drivers will be increasing therefore, their needs and requirements need to be taken into account when designing in-car user interfaces. Current solutions in car industry tend to use big touch screens for controlling the secondary tasks, such as navigation. These solutions are proved to be very distracting while driving. We present a design of conversational assistant for older drivers to improve secondary-task performance, help with decision making in primary tasks with reduced stress. We conducted a user study in the laboratory (N=7) and gained initial knowledge about how the conversational assistant should support older drivers in secondary tasks. Our exploration revealed potential opportunities for the future design of such in-car assistants.
Model of a Conversational System for Controlling secondary Task while Driving
There are lots of additional systems and infotainment function in nowadays cars, which is hard to control expecially for elderly people. this work aims to find an appropriate design for interaction with these systems using a conversational approach.
Multimodal user interaction for human behavior modeling in adaptation and personalization
We present the concept and future work plans of user model creation using multimodal user interaction, mainly conversational use interface. The model will be used for the prediction of user needs and behavior in various contexts, e.g., mobility and accessibility, resulting in the personalization of products, services or use interfaces.
Perception of Tactile Symbols by Visually Impaired Older Adults
We present a design of an indoor orientation terminal for visually impaired older adults. Interaction is based on buttons, tactile symbols, and audio feedback. The terminal consists of five parts dedicated to a particular function. The tactile symbols mimic real-world objects. We performed three design iterations and conduct evaluations with a total of 17 participants, their mean age was 84.2 years. The results show that usage of real-world objects and low level of symbol abstraction leads to an unambiguous pairing of user expectations and real functions. Introduction of complicated and abstract artifacts like contour objects or complex tactile map was very hard to understand and recognize. Our final design was well accepted by all participants and allowed the participants to orient themselves in the indoor environment.
Supporting personalized care of older adults with vision and cognitive impairments by user modeling
Proceedings of the Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems. IEEE (Institute of Electrical and Electronics Engineers), 2019. p. 891-900. ISSN 2325-0348. ISBN 978-83-952357-8-8.
We present a user modeling approach tailored to the user group of older adults with vision impairments. Our previous work with this user group has been followed by
qualitative user research with the staff of a residential care facility for visually impaired older adults. We defined the structure of a user model that represents aspects related to personal psychological development and attributes that affect interaction with technologies. Furthermore, we present two generations of prototypes of administration UI for the user model. Results of the qualitative evaluation are discussed in the paper. This effort aims to help the personnel of specialized care institution in providing personalized care and make the interaction with technologies accessible for the group of visually impaired older adults with vision impairments.
This paper aims to present a state-of-the-art review in various fields of interest, leading to a new concept of bio-inspired control of small aircraft. The main goal is to improve controllability and safety in flying at low speeds.
The review part of the paper gives an overview of artificial and natural flow sensors and haptic feedback actuators and applications. This background leads to a discussion part where the topics are synthesized and the trend in control of small aircraft is estimated.
The gap in recent aircraft control is identified in the pilot–aircraft interaction. A pilot’s sensory load is discussed and several recommendations for improved control system architecture are laid out in the paper.
The paper points out an opportunity for a following research of suggested bio-inspired aircraft control. The control is based on the artificial feeling of aerodynamic forces acting on a wing by means of haptic feedback.
The paper merges two research fields – aircraft control and human–machine interaction. This combination reveals new possibilities of aircraft control.
Conversational Agents for Physical World Navigation
This chapter presents a design process for developing a conversational navigation agent for visually impaired pedestrians where communication runs in natural language. This approach brings a lot of new problems with opportunity to solve them in nontraditional ways. The conversation with the agent is an example of a problem-solving process with several complex parts of the solution needed to be executed by the user. The user can ask additional questions about each part of the solution, thus adaptively changing the level of detail of information acquired, or to alternate the whole process to fit user preferences. In this way, the agent can replace a human navigator. Using this design process exemplar, we provide guidance on creating similar conversational agents, which utilize a natural language user interface. The guidance is supported by the results of several experiments conducted with participants with visual impairments.
Indoor-Outdoor Intermodal Sidewalk-Based Navigation Instructions for Pedestrians with Visual Impairments
Visual impairment limits people mainly in their travel related activities. Available navigation systems and aids for people with visual impairment solely focus either on indoor or outdoor environment and thus do not take into account their traveling habits – intermodal transportation. Verified guidelines for creating navigation instructions while transiting between different environments are needed. We present a set of navigation instructions designed for sidewalk-based navigation systems intended for transitions between indoor and outdoor environments and the usage of public transport. In two experiments with people with visual impairment, we evaluated our method on low-fidelity prototypes. We describe how we form the navigation instructions from sentence templates and how we envision the utilization of Bluetooth beacons.
Landmark-enhanced route itineraries for navigation of blind pedestrians in urban environment
Visual impairment limits a person mainly in the ability to move freely and independently. Even with many navigation aids and tools currently on the market, almost one-third of the visually impaired do not travel alone without a guide. One of the most useful aids are the landmark-enhanced itineraries of the route created by orientation and mobility specialists. We describe the design of a system, which is based on a specific, efficiently collected geographical data, and which automatically generates human-like landmark-enhanced itineraries for navigation of visually impaired users. The studies we conducted (quantitative n = 16, qualitative n = 6) showed usability and efficiency of the system. We also provide a set of design recommendations to increase the usability of the system along with specific examples of usage of particular landmarks. Moreover, we report on 14-day long diary study (n = 3) where visually impaired participants used the system freely throughout the city center with a success rate of 84% without using GPS. Finally, based on an over-the-phone survey (n = 18), we provide a methodology to identify the essential area, where geographical data needs to be collected to enable visually impaired pedestrians to travel around the city center efficiently.
Optimizing the Number of Bluetooth Beacons with Proximity Approach at Decision Points for Intermodal Navigation of Blind Pedestrians
Navigation in urban environments is very challenging for blind pedestrians. Although many navigation approaches using various principles or sensors to help visually impaired people exists nowadays they still have problems to navigate in complex buildings, find entrances to buildings or to navigate to correct public transport stops. Current solutions use a large number of sensor that needs to be installed in the environment needed to track every single move of the user. We present a solution to reduce the number of installed sensors by using previously developed set of landmark-enhanced navigation instructions allowing us to lower the necessary number of Bluetooth beacons by using them only for proximity notification at indoor decision points, indicating public transport station and entrances. The evaluation in the field study (N = 8) suggests a good potential of the approach, especially in terms of usability, recovery from going astray and beacon deployment cost. Further, we provide guidance on beacons placement in the environment.
Reaction to directional vibrations applied on a joystick
Human factor is the most common reason for aircraft accident. Therefore, an improvement of pilot–aircraft interaction by vibrotactile feedback is a way of increasing the safety of flight. This study focuses on the ability of pilot to distinguish directional vibration of a control stick and react in a specific direction. To investigate the intuitive reaction of a pilot on directional vibration, human–machine experiment was carried out. For the experiment, aircraft control stick was replaced by a joystick. The task involved the reaction to the directional vibrations of segments mounted on the joystick by an intuitive reaction. A hypothesis that a human can distinguish directional vibration of the control stick and react in specific directions was confirmed with an error rate of approximately 5%. The experiment was carried out with a prescribed way of holding the joystick in hand. This fact limits results generalization. Future work aims at designing new feedback hardware and analyzing the influence of different ways of stick holding.
Suppressing external visual distractors from driver's field of view
2018 9th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications (CogInfoCom). San Francisco: American Institute of Physics and Magnetic Society of the IEEE, 2018. p. 93-98. ISSN 2375-1312. ISBN 978-1-5386-7094-1.
Driver inattention is one of the factors in many car crash or near-crash incidents. This inattention can be caused by distractors that force the driver to look away from the forward roadway. In this paper, we focused on external distractors, namely static billboards. We proposed two methods that suppress the visibility of the billboard - Wiped method, which covers the billboard with black content and Transparent method, which makes the billboard 90% transparent. In the following study with 10 participants, we observed that the wiped method was more successful in suppressing the driver's attention to the billboard than transparent method. Participants spent in average 0.42 seconds looking at one wiped billboard compared to 0.89 seconds spent looking at one transparent billboard. The Wiped method was also favored by participants in post-test subjective rating.
Older adults gradually lose their physical and psychical abilities, and they have to get accustomed to this fact. This situation causes certain discomfort for these people and question arises how to make their life easier to minimize the discomfort. One of the possible solutions is to provide them with training by means of which they can acquire new skills that may ideally compensate their inabilities to a satisfactory extent. In this paper, we will discuss possibilities how to employ new information technologies allowing to simulate the virtual interaction of the person in various environments. The use of these technologies also allows personalization, i.e., taking into account the abilities of individual users that suffer from a particular handicap. Moreover, these technologies make possible to train people for new situations in new environments in advance, before they occur there physically, for instance, to train them for operating new devices in the household, etc. The goal of this paper is to attract the attention of people who work in institutions where care for older adults is provided to new methods that in principle can increase the comfort of older adults together with allowing caregivers to increase quality and efficiency of their work. The technology cannot replace human caregivers, but it should provide them with new possibilities in the process when older adults are treated.
Breathing Friend: Tackling Stress Through Portable Tangible Breathing Artifact
Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2017. Wien: Springer, 2017. p. 106-115. Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI. vol. 10516. ISSN 1611-3349. ISBN 978-3-319-68058-3.
We present Breathing Friend – a portable and tangible device that uses haptic interaction to unobtrusively stimulate mindful breathing as efficient stress coping method. Its design is optimized for holding in user’s hands. By changing its shape, it sends haptic signals to the user. Several studies were conducted where we explored and verified the form factors of the artifact, interaction methods, therapeutic effect, fitting to everyday life, and influence on the breathing pattern.
Crowdsourcing of Accessibility Attributes on Sidewalk-Based Geodatabase
Human-Computer Interaction – INTERACT 2017. Wien: Springer, 2017. p. 436-440. Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI. vol. 10516. ISSN 1611-3349. ISBN 978-3-319-68058-3.
Although the issue of limited mobility affects a large portion of the population, current navigation systems working with roadway-based geodatabases are designed primarily for cars and therefore cannot efficiently help. Usage of the professionally created sidewalk-based geodatabase is a solution. However, the professional geographical “on-site reconnaissance” is labor demanding. In this poster, we report on results of preliminary research focused on a design of the gamified collection of accessibility attributes by non-expert crowd, which will reduce the data collection cost. Preliminary results suggest the feasibility of the approach supported by a proper guidance of non-experts and creativity of achieving precise measurements.
Designing Conversational Navigation for Blind Pedestrians
In this workshop, we discuss our long-term research leading towards a design of conversational navigation application for blind pedestrians. We describe steps we took in order to capture the structure of dialogs on human-human conversation example and approach we applied in order to generate the appropriate knowledge base for the application. Finally, we discuss technologies used and the questions their usage raise in the context of evaluation and empirical studies.
Explorations into ICT Usage and Behavior in Travel Related Activities of Wheelchair Users
People with limited mobility have to tackle the barriers of built environment and inaccessible services while traveling on an everyday basis. In this paper, we focus on how information and communication technologies are used in the context of traveling in an urban environment. We conducted seven semi-structured interviews with wheelchairs users of various abilities. Our findings suggest that wheelchair users are active in traveling and information and communication technologies focused on route planning (namely satellite imagery and Google Street View) are helpful. Up-to-dateness of the data is an issue. However, wheelchair users do not participate in crowdsourcing activities. From their reactions, it seems that there is a time barrier or they do not see clear benefits from participating. The future design processes should include participatory design approach for industrial designers involved in future accessible navigation user interfaces. Further, ad-hoc change of the route and better communications of municipalities about temporal barriers should be supported.
Explorations into ICT Usage and Behavior in Travel Related Activities of Wheelchair Users. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/319750106_Explorations_into_ICT_Usage_and_Behavior_in_Travel_Related_Activities_of_Wheelchair_Users [accessed Oct 19 2017].
Explorations into use-cases of conversation systems in campus environment
Conversation systems gain a lot of attention nowadays. They provide a natural language interfaces for various services commonly in a form of a text-messaging user interface. Many of these services are rather simple information retrieval services such as weather forecast or news. In our talk, we explore several use-cases placed into campus environment navigation, problem solving, and accessibility for visually impaired students. Our prototype applications were developed in cooperation with IBM Research in Prague and introduce state-of-art IBM Watson Conversation technology.
How can ICT help the visually impaired older adults in residential care institutions: The everyday needs survey
Older adults challenged with vision impairments require special care, often served in residential care institutions. This paper presents outcomes of a user study to reveal everyday needs and problems of clients of such institution. The study was organized as semistructured interviews with residential home clients (N = 6) and staff (N = 6). Our findings indicate that most needs can be already addressed by specific care given in residential institutions. However, we identified areas where ICT could be beneficial for better orientation and well-being of clients. We draw results to motivate and frame design directions.
Improving Reverse Geocoding: Localization of Blind Pedestrians Using Conversational UI
Geolocation services suffer from low precision in urban environments mainly due to sky occlusion and signal reflections from buildings, which is the key disadvantage of current navigation assistive aids for blind pedestrians. We designed a method that improves reverse geocoding to the level, at which the system can differentiate sides of the street where the blind user is traveling. By implementing a conversational user interface to ask the user about important landmarks and in combination with coarse location and heading, we achieved a usable, accessible and acceptable solution. The number of address points candidates can be reduced by 50 % to those on the corresponding side of the street. A qualitative field study with six visually impaired participants confirmed acceptance by the user group and accessibility and usability of the method.
We present a prototype of Surveillance System developed as part of an indoor navigation system. By employing computer vision, it aims to increase the safety and security in large public buildings. The related indoor navigation system for hospitals uses a video detection for identification of navigated users. For purposes of a Surveillance System, we utilize video streams from various navigation system terminals. Our design
is based on a user study with hospital employees (N = 6) and security staff (N = 7). Proposed prototypes have been evaluated with representatives of the target user audience; Lo-Fi prototype (N = 3), Hi-Fi prototype (N = 7). Results of the evaluation suggest that the Surveillance System can contribute to improving hospital safety and security and increasing staff efficiency.
Automatically Generated Landmark-enhanced Navigation Instructions for Blind Pedestrians
Proceedings of the 2016 Federated Conference on Computer Science and Information Systems. Katowice: Polish Information Processing Society, 2016. p. 1605-1612. ISSN 2300-5963. ISBN 978-83-60810-90-3.
Visual impairment limits a person mainly in ability to move freely and independently. Even with many navigation aids and tools currently on the market, almost one third of the visually impaired do not travel independently without a guide, and human-prepared landmark-enhanced itineraries of the route are the most useful. We designed a system which based on a specific efficiently collected geographical data generates human-like landmark-enhanced navigation instructions. The studies we conducted (quantitative n = 16, qualitative n = 6) proved usability and efficiency of the system. Further we provide set of design recommendations to increase the usability of the system along with specific examples of usage with particular landmarks.
CoBoard Flowers: An Interactive Installation for Prague Spring International Music Festival
In this paper we introduce CoBoard1 Flowers, an audio-visual public installation for Prague Spring International Music Festival. An interactive visualization with floral motifs
is shown and is controlled by a face detection technology, enabled by a computer vision algorithm. The visualization is controlled by the estimated position, distance, gender, and age of the participants. The visualization is accompanied by adaptive music. The solution has been qualitatively evaluated (N=6). The installation has been used in the total of 453 interactive sessions during 14 concert evenings.
SENIOŘI A JEJICH KOMUNIKACE SE ZAŘÍZENÍMI V PROSTŘEDÍ INFORMAČNÍCH TECHNOLOGIÍ
Senioři jsou nedílnou součástí populace, a tudíž jsou ovlivňováni vývojem společnosti. Jedním z aspektů je přizpůsobování vývoji společnosti v oblasti informačních technologií. Lidé se musí naučit zacházet s těmito technologiemi, poněvadž tyto technologie stále více pronikají do jejich každodenního života. S rozvojem informačních technologií vznikají i nové formy komunikace s počítači (nebo se zařízeními, která jsou počítací řízena). Dostáváme se tak k jiným formám komunikace než je komunikace založená na využívání klávesnice a myši. Ve většině případů tyto nové formy komunikace usnadňují práci s počítačem a mají tak potenciál pro využití seniory. Tak jako byli v minulosti senioři seznamováni s možnostmi klasické komunikace (klávesnice + myš) bude v současné době třeba seznamovat seniory i s novými možnostmi komunikace s počítači. Při vytváření prostředků pro nové formy komunikace hraje primární roli zkoumání konkrétních potřeb uživatelů (v našem případě seniorů). Na základě těchto zjištění jsou pak za použití systematických metod návrhu nová zařízení pro komunikaci navrhována a realizována. V příspěvku budou prezentována některá řešení, která jsou výsledkem výzkumu na ČVUT.
Indoor environments like hospitals are typically very complex and hard to navigate even for healthy individuals. Factors like bad health status, higher stress level, and possible
impairments can make the orientation in hospitals even more challenging. We describe the evolution of context-sensitive navigation system that provides adaptive indoor navigation without forcing users to use sophisticated smartphones or other specialized
personal navigation devices. Instead, various networked navigation terminal installed at appropriate spots in the indoor environment are used to guide users to their destination. User study (N=10) and on-site study in a big hospital have been conducted. Prototypes including hospital visit preparation website, smart kiosk and waiting room kiosk, were developed and evaluated. These prototypes have been evaluated with target user audience, LoFi prototype (N=6) and HiFi prototype (N=12). The results suggest usability and utility of our navigation systems for the target user audience.
Touchscreen smartphones are powerful devices ca- pable considerably help people with special needs. Despite this, a large number of visually impaired people in the Czech Republic hesitate to adopt them. In this paper, we present results of a qualitative study (n = 6) and quantitative study (n = 25), which explore how visually impaired people use their current phones, why some of them hesitate to adopt touchscreen smartphones and what is a trend in adoption of these technologies in the near future. The results indicate that participants using modern touchscreen smartphone consider themselves more independent than before when they used older keypad smartphones. They also use more internet related and entertainment applications, along with a large number of different navigation applications. However, it appears that one of the biggest fears of keypad smartphone users is the low speed of writing. Finally, it seems that keypad smartphones will be obsolete in few years even within this user group.
BlindCamera: Central and Golden-ratio Composition for Blind Photographers
Proceedings of the 2015 Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation International Conference on Multimedia, Interaction, Design and Innovation. New York: ACM, 2015. p. 1-8. ISBN 978-1-4503-3601-7.
Even though the photography is a visual medium, visually impaired people use their smartphone cameras to take photos. We present a smartphone application, which helps visually impaired people to properly aim while taking portrait photographs. We have implemented an aiming assistance algorithm for two compositions (central, golden-ratio) and two feedback modalities (voice, vibration). In a study with 12 blindfolded participants we compared four combinations (composition × feedback modality) in aiming time, interaction, completion time, aesthetic quality of photos, and comfort of use. The results show that the combination of golden ratio composition with voice feedback produced the best aiming time (5.53 seconds) and completion time (8.33 seconds), the best aesthetic quality of photos, and was perceived as most comfortable. The interaction time of double click was 2.92 seconds on average and there was no significant difference between the four combinations.
Game Aspects in Collaborative Navigation of Blind Travelers
This chapter shows how elements of gamification, i.e. game thinking and game mechanics, can be integrated into a collaborative navigation system for visually impaired persons in order encourage them to travel independently and thus improve their quality of life and self-confidence. The system supports independent navigation in unknown places by mediating help from another visually impaired person, who is familiar with the particular place. Our system utilizes a thermal user interface to introduce an additional communication channel and thus to increase the usability of the system. The system has been successfully enhanced by game elements and illustrates the potential of introducing game elements into these systems.
In this paper we introduce GraFooSha [GRAndmaFOOdSHAring] – a device that provides access to food sharing social network to senior users. GraFooSha is a physical device that incorporates deep-rooted concepts the target group is familiar with. A user study (N=4), conceptual design as well as industrial design is described in the paper. Followed by description of technical realization of mechanical, electronic and software components. The paper is concluded by evaluation with
the target user audience (N=10).
KoalaPhone: touchscreen mobile phone UI for active seniors
We deal with a problem of designing a user interface for touchscreen phones with respect to special needs of seniors. We conducted qualitative study (n=5) followed by quantitative one (n=118). From the comparison of our study with existing studies we observed an obvious trend in more extensive usage of advanced features, which cannot be explained only by the shift of the younger seniors to older age groups. We provided a set of recommendations and we designed a new touchscreen phone user interface to support needs of active seniors. In comparison (n=15) with standard Android UI our solution had higher completion rate in two of four complex tasks and 6× higher completion rate of all tasks while producing 2.4× fewer errors. Our interface was subjectively perceived more comfortable, efficient and producing less errors.
Navigation Problems in Blind-to-Blind Pedestrians Tele-assistance Navigation
We raise a question whether it is possible to build a large-scale navigation system for blind pedestrians where a blind person navigates another blind person remotely by mobile phone. We have conducted an experiment, in which we observed blind people navigating each other in a city center in 19 sessions. We focused on problems in the navigator’s attempts to direct the traveler to the destination. We observed 96 problems in total, classified them on the basis of the type of navigator or traveler activity and according to the location in which the problem occurred. Most of the problems occurred during the activities performed by the navigator. We extracted a set of guidelines based on analysis of navigation problems and successful navigation strategies. We have partially mapped the problem of tele-assistance navigation to POMDP based dialogue system.
A chess game is very popular also for visually impaired players. To some extent we can see similarities to blindfold chess game of sighted players. However blindfold chess is played by master players only. Thus blind beginners are facing demanding conditions for playing chess. We started with initial observation of a game play of blind chess players and indicated signs of using mental images, limits in learning efficient chess play, or accessibility problems. We extracted 114 findings from the semi-structured interviews conducted with 5 blind advanced chess players. Based on these findings we propose directions for future research and development.
Qualitative Measures for Evaluation of Navigation Applications for Visually Impaired
Mobile navigation applications help improve the quality of life and self-confidence of visually impaired people. In order to understand the issues of communication between visually impaired user and mobile navigation application, qualitative analysis related to the structure of navigation process should be used. Therefore we propose a design of new usability evaluation tool that is based on the functional model of a general navigation system for blind. We implemented the tool and evaluated it with data from our recent experiment on mobile navigation aid. Results showed that the tool allows analysis of navigation problems and investigation of specific user behavior, specifically issues related to timing of the navigation dialog in relation to the position of visually impaired user and verification of correct execution of navigation instructions.
Software architecture for a distributed in-hospital navigation system
Hospital environments are typically large, and even healthy individuals can need a navigation map. When we consider the combination of stress, concerns about health and convalescence, age and other factors that can affect hospital patients, it is clear that navigation can be a problem, and that assistance may be required. This paper focuses on the technical realization of an in-hospital navigation system tailored for users with limited orientation capabilities. A network of navigation spots throughout a hospital building is used to guide a user to his/her destination. A computer vision method is used for seamless user identification. Software and hardware implementation of navigation terminals, and also network communication, are discussed in this paper.
A navigation system for visually impaired users can be much more efficient if it is based on collaboration among visually impaired persons and on utilising distributed knowledge about the environment in which the navigation task takes place. To design a new system of this kind, it is necessary to make a study of communication among visually impaired users while navigating in a given environment and on their regularly walked routes. A qualitative study was conducted to gain insight into the issue of communication among visually impaired persons while they are navigating in an unknown environment, and our hypotheses were validated by a quantitative study with a sample of 54 visually impaired respondents. A qualitative study was conducted with 20 visually impaired participants aimed at investigating regularly walked routes used by visually impaired persons. The results show that most visually impaired users already collaborate on navigation, and consider an environment description from other visually impaired persons to be adequate for safe and efficient navigation. It seems that the proposed collaborative navigation system is based on the natural behaviour of visually impaired persons. In addition, it has been shown that a network of regularly walked routes can significantly expand the urban area in which visually impaired persons are able to navigate safely and efficiently.
Data Structures for Landmark-based Navigation of Blind Pedestrians
2nd Conference on Mobile and Information Technologies in Medicine Conference Proceedings. Praha: České vysoké učení technické v Praze, Fakulta elektrotechnická, 2014. ISBN 978-80-01-05637-0.
Current GIS based navigation systems lack specific landmarks blind pedestrian use. To
address this issue we present a data structure for landmark-based navigation. The data structure
supports definition of specific landmarks such as surface, acoustic, olfactory properties of environment
same as definition of important landmarks along a route. Routing algorithm takes in account
specific preferences and abilities of blind travelers such as inability to cross large open spaces or
preference to use underpass from unmarked pedestrian crossing. Resulting step-by-step navigation
instructions enable users to navigate independently along the route.
Designing Mobile Phone Interface for Active Seniors: User Study in Czech Republic
We deal with the problem of designing user interface for mobile phones with respect to special needs of seniors. We conducted qualitative study (n = 5) followed by quantitative one (n = 118). From the comparison of our study with existing studies we observed an obvious trend in more extensive usage of advanced features, which cannot be explained only by the shift of the younger seniors to older age groups. We concluded that designing phones with few basic features is a wrong approach. To support needs of seniors we must design phones with rich set of advanced features but with much more intuitive and ergonomic user interfaces than those that are currently available.
In this workshop we describe our ongoing work on a prototype presenting heat map data to visually impaired users. We try to reduce the stress level of blind travelers by presenting information about the number of other blind persons who can help with navigation. This is reached by augmentation of the users’ environment by social proximity metaphor mediated by our heat map thermal display of the prototype.
iDTV user interface for elderly users based on simplified navigation scheme
We present a new iDTV user interface based on simplified navigation scheme, which allows very simple and intuitive interaction with complex interactive digital TV features via common TV remote control. The user interface is designed for elderly people and consists of simple views organized in a newly structured navigation map which preserves fast access of basic TV functionality while the advanced features are also easily accessible. Three usability studies (28 participants) showed that our design performs well in a realistic environment. After deployment of our new user interface (more than 100,000 households) the adoption ratio of new interactive digital TV features has risen significantly.
In-hospital navigation system for people with limited orientation
We developed an adaptive indoor navigation system for users with limited orientation with special focus on visually impaired and senior people. A qualitative study (n = 12) was conducted investigating problems of navigation in large national hospitals. Several prototypes were designed and iteratively tested with potential users (n = 13). Findings are reported in a form of design recommendations for indoor navigation systems for users with limited orientation.
Navigation Dialog of Blind People: Recovery from Getting Lost
Navigation of blind people is different from the navigation of sighted people and there is also difference when the blind person is recovering from getting lost. In this paper we focus on qualitative analysis of dialogs between lost blind person and navigator, which is done through the mobile phone. The research was done in two outdoor and one indoor location. The analysis revealed several areas where the dialog model must focus on detailed information, like evaluation of instructions provided by blind person and his/her ability to reliably locate navigation points.
On the selection of 2D objects using external labeling
We present an external labeling laid over small and/or overlapping 2D objects as an efficient representation for their selection. The approximation of objects with points allows us to transform the labeling problem to graph layout problem, which we solve by means of force-based algorithm. The input parameters allow us to influence the resulting layout of label boxes (e.g. to adapt their distance for imprecise input devices). In a study with 15 participants two implementations of our algorithm were compared against labeling method, where all label boxes share the same offset from corresponding objects. The results of the study show that implementation using a special functionality (temporary freezing of the label box position recalculation) was 14% faster with a comparable accuracy. The subjective evaluation revealed that the implementation with temporary freezing is perceived as most comfortable, fastest and most accurate. The implementation without temporary freezing showed much higher error rate and cannot be recommended.
U seniorů dochází s přibývajícím věkem ke zhoršení orientace v prostoru. Se stárnutím populace bude četnost těchto problémů přibývat. Tento příspěvek se zabývá otázkou jak seniorům orientaci usnadnit za pomoci moderních technologií. Cílem příspěvku je poskytnout přehled možných řešení alespoň některých situací, se kterými se postižení senioři mohou setkat. Některá řešení jsou výsledky výzkumu prováděného dlouhodobě na ČVUT v Praze.
Prostorová navigace v každodenním životě nevidomých - participační výzkum
Tento příspěvek popisuje kvalitativní výzkumný projekt zaměřený na problematiku samostatné
navigace nevidomých v městském prostředí. Výzkum byl prováděn v rámci mezioborové
spolupráce na poli HCI (Human Computer Interaction) a jeho cílem bylo získat
vhledy potřebné pro formulaci funkčních požadavků a design uživatelského rozhraní navigačního
systému pro nevidomé, jenž autoři společně vyvíjejí. Výzkumná zjištění získaná
analýzou 32 semistrukturovaných rozhovorů podtrhují kritický význam samostatného
pohybu nevidomých pro kvalitu jejich života. Dále přinášejí vhledy do témat, jakými jsou
vyrovnávání se s postižením nebo přijímání pomoci, strategie a orientační klíče využívané
v procesu navigace městským prostředím, navigační pomůcky a další. V závěru autoři
vyvozují na základě svých zjištění požadavky na funkcionalitu a uživatelské rozhraní
vyvíjeného navigačního systému.
WheelGo is a navigation system for wheelchair people. It allows fast and easy management of obstacles, and is optimized for monitoring of temporary obstacles. The system runs on smartphone a thus can be used while on the move. WheelGo system was tested with wheelchair users and the test results showed that the system is acceptable and usable by the target group.
In this paper we introduce a prototype system for
an interactive advertisement panel. Our panel prototype engages
attention of passing potential customers for 50x longer time
period than its printed alternative. The panel attracts his/her
attention and engages him/her into a short interactive game. It
uses computer vision methods to track potential customers face
and to estimate potential customer’s age and gender, which can
be used for better targeting and evaluation of an advertisement
campaign. A proof of concept implementation of panel prototype
has been qualitatively and quantitatively evaluated.
An evaluation tool for research of user behavior in a realistic mobile environment
User behavior is significantly influenced by the surrounding environment. Especially complex and dynamically changing environments (like mobile environment) are represented by a wide variety of extraneous variables, which influence the user behavior in an unpredictable and mostly uncontrolled way. For researchers, it is challenging to measure and analyze the user behavior in such environments. We introduce a complex tool-the IVE tool-which provides a unique way of context visualization and synchronization of measured data of various kinds. Thanks to this tool it is possible to efficiently evaluate data acquired during complex usability tests in a mobile environment. The functionality of this tool is demonstrated on the use case "Navigation of visually impaired users in the building with support of a navigation system called NaviTerier." During the experiment, we focused on collection and analysis of data that may show user stress and which may influence his/her ability to n
Turn-taking and turn-yielding phenomena in dialogs receive increasing attention nowadays. A growing number of spoken dialog systems inspire application designers to humanize people’s interaction experience with computers. The knowledge of psychology in discourse structure could be helpful in this effort. In this paper the authors explore effectiveness of selected visual and vocal turn-yielding cues in dialog systems using synthesized speech and an avatar. The aim of this work is to detect the role of visual and vocal cues on dialog turn-change judgment using a conversational agent. The authors compare and study the cues in two experiments. Findings of those experiments suggest that the selected visual turn-yielding cues are more effective than the vocal cues in increasing correct judgment of dialog turn-change. Vocal cues in the experiment show quite poor results and the conclusion discusses possible explanations of that.
In this paper we introduce an in-hospital navigation system suitable for motor im-
paired, visually impaired and elderly people. GPS localisation and Wi-Fi triangulation are often
not suitable in indoor environments due to poor signal or complicated calibration. We present a navigation system that does not depend on precise electronic localisation aids. User interfaces used
are automatically accustomed to target user's abilities and preferences. Four dierent terminal
types are used for the navigation system prototype.
Diverse trajectory planning for UAV control displays
Current UAV control systems can plan optimal trajectories with respect to predefined constraints (waypoints, no-fly zones). However when the operator is not satisfied with planned trajectories it is usually very complicated to force the system to change the trajectories in desired way. In this demonstration we solve this problem by innovative UAV control display based on diverse planning algorithm.
Field study: How Blind People Communicate While Recovering From Loss of Orientation
The situation when the orientation is lost is mentally
demanding for blind people and is mainly solved with help of
passer-by people. We conducted a series of user studies (37
participants) which analyzed the feelings and behavior patterns
of blind people when recovering from loss of orientation. Blind
people find the help of passer-by people as unpleasant and of
poor quality thus the studies focused on recovery via phone
call with another blind person. We observed several interesting
behavior patterns, e.g. all blind people moved during the phone
call and verified obtained information until they found a common
unambiguous landmark. We modeled a structure of a dialogue
between the lost blind person and the helping blind person. The
data collected from both studies enabled us to create a dialogue
model and a general structure of communication. The results
of the study provided foundation for a new type of automated
assistance center for blind people which concept was designed.
We introduce an arcade game with thermo-haptic
feedback. The game demonstrates the ability of heat to deliver
information for efficient navigation and orientation in space. The
pressure is mapped to the level of danger of objects in the
game scene. The surface becomes spiky if the nearby object is
dangerous. The long-term testing of the game (7 days) showed
that the thermo-haptic feedback seems to be promising feedback
modality, as 51 players finished all three levels of the game and
54% of objects were correctly identified.
Tangible Heat Maps for Navigation of Visually Impaired Users
Commonly used haptic interaction techniques are typically
limited to touching solid glass displays or vibrations.
Although there are more complex experimental haptic
interfaces, their real application is often unclear. Our
prototype of tangible heat map for visually impaired
travelers demonstrates rich haptic interaction in real
application. We map heat maps values to several haptic
features, and help the user to get feeling of condence
and safety while travelling.
Implementation of Adaptive Multimedia Application Concept in iDTV Environment
This paper describes a model of adaptation of multimedia
application. The adaptation is based on user's progress in using a content of the
application and a plan that defines long-time usage strategy of the application.
The model was applied to education application but it can be used also in other
use-cases. This model was designed to be easy to implement and use, and it is
an alternative to robust learning models. The implementation of the model is
presented on Physical Exercise application.
Measuring Performance of a Predictive Keyboard Operated by Humming
A number of text entry methods use a predictive completion based on letter-level n-gram model. In this paper, we investigate on an optimal length of n-grams stored in such model for a predictive keyboard operated by humming. In order to find the length, we analyze six different corpora, from which a model is built by counting number of primitive operations needed to enter a text. Based on these operations, we provide a formula for estimation of words per minute (WPM) rate. The model and the analysis results are verified in an experiment with three experienced users of the keyboard.
Mutual Communication in Navigation of Visually Impaired
Navigation system for visually impaired users can be
much more efficient if it will be based on collaboration and
utilization of distributed knowledge about the environment. For
design of such a new system a research of communication of
visually impaired users while navigating them self in certain
environment is essential. The qualitative study has been
conducted to gain insight into the problem of communication of
visually impaired during navigation in unknown environment
and hypotheses have been validated by quantitative study with
sample of 54 visually impaired respondents. The results show
that majority of visually impaired users already collaborate on
navigation and consider environment description from other
visually impaired sufficient for navigation and that the proposed
collaborative navigation system has basis in natural behavior of
the visually impaired users.
NAVITERIER - INDOOR NAVIGATION SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY IMPAIRED
This paper presents key findings gathered during development of indoor navigation system called NaviTerier . This
system is targeted to visually impaired users who want to navigate independently inside large buildings like hospital,
library, university, etc. System is based on structured description of environment that is provided to the user by special
application installed on a smartphone.
NÁVRH UŽIVATELSKÉHO ROZHRANÍ INTERAKTIVNÍ DIGITÁLNÍ TELEVIZE PRO SENIORY
Cílem projektu bylo navrhnout uživatelské rozhraní digitální televize připojené přes Internet (IPTV) pro cílovou skupinu seniorů a vyvinout odpovídající prototyp spustitelný na běžně do‐stupných set‐top boxech. Vzhledem ke skutečnosti, že poskytovatelé IPTV často nabízejí velké množství různých televizních stanic, zaměřili jsme se na vyhledávání a správu pořadů, namísto klasického přístupu přes kanály. Před samotným návrhem uživatelského rozhraní jsme provedli uživatelský výzkum formou hloubkových rozhovorů, dotazníků a ohniskové skupiny s celkem 97 seniory. Uživatelský výzkum nám umožnil lépe porozumět potřebám uživatele a definovat budoucí funkcionalitu prototypu. Prototyp uživatelského rozhraní byl vytvořen během tří ite‐rací, kdy byl prototyp v každé iteraci testován v testech použitelnosti celkem se sedmi seniory. Nalezené problémy v použitelnosti byly vždy odstraněny v následující iteraci. Během testů jsme nejen zjistili drobné problémy v použitelnosti, ale setkali jsme se i s konceptuálními pro‐blémy specifickými pro cílovou skupinu, jako například navigace kurzoru v dlouhém seznamu, navigace uživatele v hierarchickém menu nebo problém s návrhem filtru pro hledání pořadu.
This paper presents a new predictive scanning strategy based on the N-ary search algorithm. This strategy is demonstrated on three virtual keyboards operated by hissing - a novel interaction method suitable for severely motor impaired people with speech impairments. An experiment with 39 users was conducted to compare the keyboards to three existing scanning keyboards. The participants were able to enter a text by hissing at the speed of 10-16 characters per minute. Experiment results have also shown that a scanning strategy must be predictable for the users as they need to plan their actions in advance.
Accessibility Issues Simulation For Mobile Applications
In this paper we have identified and analysed important accessibility issues typical for the world of mobile devices and we have compared them with common sets of accessibility guidelines. We have filled the gap we have identified, by means implementation of simulation tool that provides mobile application developers convenient way how to simulate these issues with any mobile platform. It is developed as a transparent layer that can be placed over the mobile platform simulator and provides effects such as reflection, finger occlusion, tremor or simulation of visual impairments like tunnel vision, blurred vision or colour blindness.
Developer's Support For Creating Accessible Applications
This paper presents two developer tools created that support the process of development of accessible applications. These tools were created within AEGIS Project. The first tool is targeted to developers not experienced in the field of accessibility and helps them with orientation in the variety of user disabilities. It makes easier the process of prioritization of existing accessibility guidelines in a way that suits the given target group and the application developed. The second tool provides direct support for accessible rich internet applications (ARIA) development. It is a plugin for NetBeans IDE and it offers palettes of accessible UI components that can be used to build the accessible application.
In this paper we present a new methodology and enhancements of the development process for implementation of accessible RIA applications. We have identified and analysed most important accessibility issues of typical RIA applications. Based on this analysis we have proposed solutions on the level of RIA components and the level of RIA applications. Set of 11 heuristics is presented to help RIA developers with quick checking of RIA application accessibility. We propose new approach how to involve visually impaired users into testing process and developed RIA applications.
Humsher: a predictive keyboard operated by humming
This paper presents Humsher -- a novel text entry method operated by the non-verbal vocal input, specifically the sound of humming. The method utilizes an adaptive language model for text prediction. Four different user interfaces are presented and compared. Three of them use dynamic layout in which n-grams of characters are presented to the user to choose from according to their probability in given context. The last interface utilizes static layout, in which the characters are displayed alphabetically and a modified binary search algorithm is used for an efficient selection of a character. All interfaces were compared and evaluated in a user study involving 17 able-bodied subjects.
Na ČVUT senbudou vyvíjet aplikace pro nejnovější mobilní zařízení HTC.
V prostorách Fakulty elektrotechnické Českého vysokého učení technického v Praze byla 15. dubna slavnostně otevřena HTC mobilní laboratoř. Společný projekt HTC a ČVUT propojí know-how předního světového výrobce mobilních telefonů se svěžím myšlením vysokoškolských studentů.
In this paper we give an overview of the development of usability activities in the Czech Republic. We start with the historical background - in terms of general context in which usability issues were born in this country - and then we describe specific usability issues that are typical for the usability community in this country. Special attention is paid to mutual links between research at universities and industrial activities in various companies active in the Czech Republic. There exists a mutual cross-fertilization between these two activities that results in a fruitful cooperation between both sectors. This fact is demonstrated in this paper by several projects that ran in last a few years. Last but not the least the importance of cooperation between research and education at universities has been stressed. In such a way students come in touch with up-to-date research problems and get an opportunity to participate in the leading-edge research in this country.
Hands free mouse: comparative study on mouse clicks controlled by humming
Proceedings of the 28th of the international conference extended abstracts on Human factors in computing systems. New York: ACM, 2010. pp. 3769-3774. SESSION: Work-in-progress. ISBN 978-1-60558-930-5.
In this paper we present a novel method of simulating mouse clicks while the
cursor is navigated by head movements tracked by webcam. Our method is based
on simple hummed voice commands. It is fast, language independent and
provides full control of common mouse buttons. Our method was compared with
other three different methods in an experiment that proved its efficiency by
means of task duration.
This paper deals with the problem of efficient and correct
implementation of Accessible Rich Internet Application (ARIA) recommendation
into user interface component during rich internet application development
process. A new methodology is presented, which is based on testing the
accessibility on real-life web applications with help of experienced blind users.
Three Web Toolkits were evaluated by this method and serious accessibility
issues were found. This new approach was then used to implement ARIArecommendation into one open source Web Toolkit
Interactive Analytical Tool for Usability Analysis of Mobile Indoor Navigation Application
Abstract Mobile navigation application are the ones that must be tested in real environment in order to show their usability problems. Preparation of the study in real environment is complex issue and so is the analysis of the collected data from such study. Therefore we performed usability study of mobile navigation application for visually impaired users and implemented a set of visualization plug-ins for IVE tools. IVE tool and visualization plug-ins were used for pre-processing and for visual analysis of collected data from the usability study of mobile indoor navigation application. We found that with IVE we were able to find approximately the same amount of usability issues as without this tool, but the IVE tool increased the speed of pre-processing and annotation creation i.e. the time necessary for the analysis has been reduced.
Správným návrhem a testováním uživatelských rozhraní interakčních systémů se zabývá obor HCI (Human Computer Interaction). Následující text pojednává o řadě metodik a technik, které obor HCI přináší, určených pro návrh systémů, které budou použitelné a pro uživatele příjemné. Popisuje metodiku UCD (User-Centered Design). Ukazuje jak provádět uživatelský výzkum a modelovat persony - hypotetické uživatele. Dále ukazuje jak do cyklu vývoje systému efektivně zavést proces prototypování a vyhodnocování.
New Way of Vocal Interface Design: Formal Description of Non-verbal Vocal Gestures
In this paper we introduce a novel approach to formal description of non-verbal vocal gestures and implementation of a general recognition system according to the formal description. It was successfully applied to existing non-verbal vocal applications such as mouse emulation by humming or Tetris. Non-verbal vocal interaction (NVVI) is a proven assistive technology and our system accelerates the process of building the NVVI applications. The system is targeted to both designers and users with disabilities who use the recognition system incorporated in an assistive application. Among others, the formal description is capable of providing continuous control of user interface elements and solving inaccuracy in the pronunciation of vocal gestures.
One of key problems that users meet when interacting with any software product is easiness of communication with such a product - we speak about usability issues. This problem has not been addressed properly in case of software products used in ICT assisted learning. In this paper we will deal with usability issues in this field. There are various systems that support ICT supported learning like e-learning, m-learning, t-learning etc. We will present experience with usability testing in t-learning (iDTV - Interactive Digital Television) environment. The topic that was taught in the iDTV learning module was cultural heritage. This topic offers a possibility to use various media (text, pictures, videos etc.) together with different ways of interaction. In such a way the requirements for usability in this environment are rather complex. The paper describes the usability issues handled in individual stages of the learning module development ...
Web applications Usability Testing with Task Model Skeletons
Usability testing is technique for analysis of the usability problems of applications, but it requires significant effort to prepare the test and especially to analyze data colleted during the test. New techniques such as usage of task models were introduced to imrove and speed up the test analysis. Unforttunately only few applications provide the task model. Therefore we propose a method and tools for partial reconstruction of the task list and the task model called skeleton. This reconstruction is done from the usability expert´s aplication walkthroughs. The task model skeleton is generated automatically, but it should provide similar information during the usability data analysis as manually created full-scaled task model. In order to evaluate usage of the task model skeleton we conducted a usability study with the web e-mail client Roundcube.
Cultural Heritage, User Interfaces and Serious Games at CTU Prague
Proceedings of the 15thInternational Conference on Virtual Systems and Multimedia. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2009. p. 211-220. Conference Publications. ISBN 978-0-7695-3790-0.
Cultural heritage presentation is a topic we at CTU Prague deal with more than ten years. In this paper we present our experience with user interface design where serious games paradigm has been utilized. The survey of selected projects represents various technologies and approaches for cultural heritage data handling that includes data acquisition, presentation, interaction and educational issues. The aim of our activities was to develop a systematic approach to the user interface design for the given class of applications.
In this paper a prototyping tool for t-learning courses is presented. The prototyping tool allows to create prototypes of t-learning courses and easily test the created prototypes. The prototyping tool is based on our concepts of t-learning. The concepts are also presented in this paper. With the prototyping tool the process of development of t-learning course is more efficient and less error prone.
Access to increasing number of web applications is very good news especially for disabled people. These applications become richer and offer wide variety of services used in everyday's life (document creation, instant messaging, data storage, email communication, social networking, etc.). The problem is that at the same time these rich internet applications (RIA) become less accessible. There is a Web Accessibility Initiative (WAI) 2 related to W3C 1 which is trying to cope with this problem. In particular the Accessible Rich Internet Application suite of W3C (WAI-ARIA) 3 is describing how to improve the accessibility of dynamic web content and advanced user interface controls in rich internet applications.
Accessibility Research at the Czech Technical University
This paper provides a short summary and bibliography of the accessibility research at the
Czech Technical University in Prague. It also presents an overview of our collaboration with
our industrial partners that is related to the assistive technologies as well as our training and networking activities.
Personalized E-learning in Interactive Digital Television Environment
The paper deals with the problems of personalization of e-learning in the interactive digital television environment. The
main problem discussed is the personalization of additional content synchronized with broadcasted AV stream. The
broadcasted AV stream is fully controlled by the broadcaster and the user has no chance to influence it. The majority of
existing concepts performs personalization above the course level (the content of the course is not personalized) or they
are suitable for asynchronous content only (e.g. video on demand). In this paper a solution for personalization of the
additional content synchronized with the AV stream is proposed. We are focusing on a standardized solution based on the
Visualization of users' activities in a specific environment
Evaluation of user interface design is usually based on usability testing methods. In this paper we analyzed and described the user behavior in the form of the user model. The user model is built on a data set which was acquired through observation of user behavior. The criterion we use for the evaluation of the usability of interface design is the user cognitive load. We present different tools for visualization, simulation and easier analysis of the user model. Because each of the methods and tools presented
use only part of the user model, in the end we present methods on how to use the complete user model to correctly describe user behavior. In order to understand such a complex model we need to have a proper visualization tool. The concept of such a visualization tool is presented at the end of this paper.
Beyond traditional interaction in a mobile environment: New approach to 3D scene rendering
In this paper the problems of user interaction in a mobile environment are investigated. Interaction in this environment imposes new requirements both on UI designers an the users. This paper deals in particular with problems of graphical interaction in a mobile environment. A rendering technique that enables rendering and annotation of objects in a 3D scene on mobile devices is presented.
The project MUMMY funded by the European Commission develops means to improve the efficiency of mobile business processes through mobile, personalized knowldge management. MUMMY approaches the challenges of mobile work processes. In this paper the achivements of MUMMY are introduced and individual components are briefly described.
Problems of Graphical User Interfaces in Mobile Environment
The paper deals with the problem of graphical user interfaces in mobile environment. Especially questions regarding comfortable graphical interaction in this environment were investigated. A number of practical examples have been shown (how to cope with this problem).
Domain Ontology Driven Adaptation of Graphical Information
The paper deals with problem of adaptation of graphical information in mobile environment. The main contribution of the paper is in the use of domain ontologies by means of which the adaptation process is controlled.
Object Based Manipulation with 3D Scenes in Mobile Computing Environment
The paper deals with problems of man-machine communication by means of voice. A novel approach based on the use of ontologies (giving information about the user context) has been designed and implemented.
Universal Access Theoretical Perspectives, Practice, and Experience. 7th ERCIM International Workshop on User Interfaces for All, Paris, France, October 24-25, 2002, Revised Papers. Heidelberg: Springer, 2003. p. 68-79. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. ISSN 0302-9743. ISBN 978-3-540-36572-3.
The increasing amount of new technologies allows us to use new approaches in design and implementation of applications of various kinds. One such example might be the use of 3D information in the web environment (and navigation in such an environment) by visually impaired users. Our solution provides semantic and functional description of the scene objects and inter-object relations in addition to "standard" geometric scene description. This approach permits the user to query for various information in the virtual environment (e.g. searching for a path to a specific object, searching for an object with specific properties and particularly filtering scene information). The system should allow the visually impaired user to virtually walk through the scene and query for information about the objects in a scene. The user interface itself provides the feedback in accordance with the user's group's specific requirements (screen reader, Braille display etc.).
Declarative Way of Filtering of Graphical Data in Mobile Computing
The problems of human-computer communication (HCC) that arise with introduction of user groups with special
requirements are discussed. We analyze new approaches that increase the quality of HCC in the environment of disabled
users or user utilizing mobile devices. In both cases the problem of adaptation of the interactive system (which
communicates with the user) to dynamically and very strongly changing context of use (end-device features,
environment, user tasks, user capabilities, etc.) are addressed. We have analyzed existing solutions. The insufficiency of
these solutions in the field of adaptation of system data (the data manipulated by the user using the user interface of an
interactive system) was identified.
Interactive Creation and Retrieval of Graphical Information by Visually Impaired Users
Proceedings of Workshop 2003 (online). Praha: České vysoké učení technické v Praze, 2003, pp. 218-219. ISBN 80-01-02708-2. Available from: http://web.cvut.cz/ctu/research/workshop/ws2003.pdf
Problems of data retrieval and collaborative work in mobile environment are
introduced. System architecture of a system solving these problems is
introduced and described. A short analysis of the system requirements and
possible architecture is given and a result solution (with respect to the
use case) is introduced. Finally technique of optimizing the network traffic
using a message queue reduction is described.
Mobile Multimedia Collaboration and Annotation within the EU Project MUMMY
Proceedings of Workshop 2003 (online). Praha: České vysoké učení technické v Praze, 2003, pp. 276-277. ISBN 80-01-02708-2. Available from: http://web.cvut.cz/ctu/research/workshop/ws2003.pdf
The increasing amount of new technologies (including multimedia, internet and virtual reality) allows us to use new approaches in design and implementation of applications of various kinds. Specific requirements emerge in the case of users with specific needs. One such example might be the use of 3D information in the web environment (and navigation in such an environment) by visually impaired users. Our solution provides semantic and functional description of the scene objects and inter-object relations in addition to "standard" geometric scene description. This approach permits the user to query for various information in the virtual environment (e.g. searching for a path to a specific object, searching for an object with specific properties and particularly filtering scene information).
Interactive Picture Information Creation and Retrieval for Blind Users
Increasing complexity of queries on the one side and UI limitations of new technologies
(e.g. handheld devices) on other enforce new flexible and dynamic querying methods
development. Experimental system for testing UI for efficient querying in picture DBS was
built. New approach applied. This approach, based on a richer (than MPEG-7) picture
description defined in XML allows more efficient querying.
The problem of the access of blind people to the graphical
information (in a form of picture) is discussed. It is necessary to reduce
amount of complex information of the picture to keep understandability
of the picture description for blind user. This is solved by special seman-
tic and structural dialog filters, which filter required information. The
research has been conducted in the framework of several projects. The
result of this research is an implementation of tools for creating and bro-
wsing the picture description. Because of the similarity between picture
description and hypertext document description the filtering methods
developed could be also used on any hypertext document, which follows
our document structure  definition made in XML . The method de-
veloped allows the user to transform two-dimensional information into
textual one. In such a way complex manipulations can be performed in