Lidé

doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.

Garant a tutor programu Softwarové inženýrství a technologie

Všechny publikace

An Innovative E-Learning Support for Modern History Distance Learning and the Experience during the COVID-19 Lockdown

  • DOI: 10.3390/su14063631
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.3390/su14063631
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Inquiry-based education in the field of history using modern multimedia and communication technologies has been the subject of several previous studies. However, much less work exists to analyse the unique situation of distance learning, which has been broadly implemented to satisfy lockdown restrictions during the current COVID-19 pandemic. This paper presents an overview of the HistoryLab project, which uses various types of multimedia and communication technology to support an interactive education of modern history and encourage an engagement in historical thinking amongst students. This project was successfully employed in recent distance teaching measures enforced under the COVID-19 lockdown in Czechia, so we report on this experience and the lessons learned, useful for the educational community, in this study.

Cyber Security in the Maritime Industry: A Systematic Survey of Recent Advances and Future Trends

  • Autoři: Ben Farah, M.A., Ukwandu, E., Hindy, H., Brosset, D., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Andonovic, I., Bellekens, X.
  • Publikace: Information. 2022, 13(1), ISSN 2078-2489.
  • Rok: 2022
  • DOI: 10.3390/info13010022
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.3390/info13010022
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The paper presents a classification of cyber attacks within the context of the state of the art in the maritime industry. A systematic categorization of vessel components has been conducted, complemented by an analysis of key services delivered within ports. The vulnerabilities of the Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) have been given particular consideration since it is a critical subcategory of many maritime infrastructures and, consequently, a target for cyber attacks. Recent research confirms that the dramatic proliferation of cyber crimes is fueled by increased levels of integration of new enabling technologies, such as IoT and Big Data. The trend to greater systems integration is, however, compelling, yielding significant business value by facilitating the operation of autonomous vessels, greater exploitation of smart ports, a reduction in the level of manpower and a marked improvement in fuel consumption and efficiency of services. Finally, practical challenges and future research trends have been highlighted.

Cyber-Security Challenges in Aviation Industry: A Review of Current and Future Trends

  • Autoři: Ukwandu, E., Ben-Farah, M., Hindy, H., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Atkinson, R., Tachtatzis, Ch., Andonovic, I., Bellekens, X.
  • Publikace: Information. 2022, 13(3), ISSN 2078-2489.
  • Rok: 2022
  • DOI: 10.3390/info13030146
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.3390/info13030146
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The integration of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) tools into mechanical devices in routine use within the aviation industry has heightened cyber-security concerns. The extent of the inherent vulnerabilities in the software tools that drive these systems escalates as the level of integration increases. Moreover, these concerns are becoming even more acute as the migration within the industry in the deployment of electronic-enabled aircraft and smart airports gathers pace. A review of cyber-security attacks and attack surfaces within the aviation sector over the last 20 years provides a mapping of the trends and insights that are of value in informing on future frameworks to protect the evolution of a key industry. The goal is to identify common threat actors, their motivations, attacks types and map the vulnerabilities within aviation infrastructures most commonly subject to persistent attack campaigns. The analyses will enable an improved understanding of both the current and potential future cyber-security protection provisions for the sector. Evidence is provided that the main threats to the industry arise from Advance Persistent Threat (APT) groups that operate, in collaboration with a particular state actor, to steal intellectual property and intelligence in order to advance their domestic aerospace capabilities as well as monitor, infiltrate and subvert other sovereign nations' capabilities. A segment of the aviation industry commonly attacked is the Information Technology (IT) infrastructure, the most prominent type of attack being malicious hacking with intent to gain unauthorised access. The analysis of the range of attack surfaces and the existing threat dynamics has been used as a foundation to predict future cyber-attack trends. The insights arising from the review will support the future definition and implementation of proactive measures that protect critical infrastructures against cyber-incidents that damage the confidence of customers

Leveraging siamese networks for one-shot intrusion detection model

  • Autoři: Hindy, H., Tachtatzis, C., Atkinson, R., Brosset, D., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Andonovic, I., Michie, C., Bellekens, X.
  • Publikace: Journal of Intelligent Information Systems. 2022, 1-30. ISSN 0925-9902.
  • Rok: 2022
  • DOI: 10.1007/s10844-022-00747-z
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10844-022-00747-z
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The use of supervised Machine Learning (ML) to enhance Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) has been the subject of significant research. Supervised ML is based upon learning by example, demanding significant volumes of representative instances for effective training and the need to retrain the model for every unseen cyber-attack class. However, retraining the models in-situ renders the network susceptible to attacks owing to the time-window required to acquire a sufficient volume of data. Although anomaly detection systems provide a coarse-grained defence against unseen attacks, these approaches are significantly less accurate and suffer from high false-positive rates. Here, a complementary approach referred to as "One-Shot Learning", whereby a limited number of examples of a new attack-class is used to identify a new attack-class (out of many) is detailed. The model grants a new cyber-attack classification opportunity for classes that were not seen during training without retraining. A Siamese Network is trained to differentiate between classes based on pairs similarities, rather than features, allowing to identify new and previously unseen attacks. The performance of a pre-trained model to classify new attack-classes based only on one example is evaluated using three mainstream IDS datasets; CICIDS2017, NSL-KDD, and KDD Cup'99. The results confirm the adaptability of the model in classifying unseen attacks and the trade-off between performance and the need for distinctive class representations.

Novel Strategy Generating Variable-Length State Machine Test Paths

  • Autoři: Rechtberger, V., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Al-Beywanee, B., Schvach, H.
  • Publikace: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering. 2022, 32(08), 1247-1278. ISSN 0218-1940.
  • Rok: 2022
  • DOI: 10.1142/S0218194022500474
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218194022500474
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Finite State Machine is a popular modeling notation for various systems, especially software and electronic. Test paths (TPs) can be automatically generated from the system model to test such systems using a suitable algorithm. This paper presents a strategy that generates TPs and allows to start and end TPs only in defined states of the finite state machine. The strategy also simultaneously supports generating TPs only of length in a given range. For this purpose, alternative system models, test coverage criteria, and a set of algorithms are developed. The strategy is compared with the best alternative based on the reduction of the test set generated by the established N-switch coverage approach on a mix of 171 industrial and artificially generated problem instances. The proposed strategy outperforms the compared variant in a smaller number of TP steps. The extent varies with the used test coverage criterion and preferred TP length range from none to two and half fold difference. Moreover, the proposed technique detected up to 30% more simple artificial defects inserted into experimental SUT models per one test step than the compared alternative technique. The proposed strategy is well applicable in situations where a possible TP starts and ends in a state machine needs to be reflected and, concurrently, the length of the TPs has to be in a defined range.

Overview of Test Coverage Criteria for Test Case Generation from Finite State Machines Modelled as Directed Graphs

  • Autoři: Rechtberger, V., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Al-Beywanee, B.
  • Publikace: Proceedings of 2022 IEEE 15th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation Workshop. Cannes: IEEE Computer Society, 2022. p. 207-214. ISSN 2159-4848. ISBN 978-1-6654-9628-5.
  • Rok: 2022
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICSTW55395.2022.00044
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSTW55395.2022.00044
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Test Coverage criteria are an essential concept for test engineers when generating the test cases from a System Under Test model. They are routinely used in test case generation for user interfaces, middleware, and back-end system parts for software, electronics, or Internet of Things (IoT) systems. Test Coverage criteria define the number of actions or combinations by which a system is tested, informally determining a potential "strength" of a test set. As no previous study summarized all commonly used test coverage criteria for Finite State Machines and comprehensively discussed them regarding their subsumption, equivalence, or non-comparability, this paper provides this overview. In this study, 14 most common test coverage criteria and seven of their synonyms for Finite State Machines defined via a directed graph are summarized and compared. The results give researchers and industry testing engineers a helpful overview when setting a software-based or IoT system test strategy.

Selected Code-Quality Characteristics and Metrics for Internet of Things Systems

  • DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3170475
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3170475
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Software code is present on multiple levels within current Internet of Things (IoT) systems. The quality of this code impacts system reliability, safety, maintainability, and other quality aspects. In this paper, we provide a comprehensive overview of code quality-related metrics, specifically revised for the context of IoT systems. These metrics are divided into main code quality categories: Size, redundancy, complexity, coupling, unit test coverage and effectiveness, cohesion, code readability, security, and code heterogeneity. The metrics are then linked to selected general quality characteristics from the ISO/IEC 25010:2011 standard by their possible impact on the quality and reliability of an IoT system, the principal layer of the system, the code levels and the main phases of the project to which they are relevant. This analysis is followed by a discussion of code smells and their relation to the presented metrics. The overview presented in the paper is the result of a thorough analysis and discussion of the author's team with the involvement of external subject-matter experts in which a defined decision algorithm was followed. The primary result of the paper is an overview of the metrics accompanied by applicability notes related to the quality characteristics, the system layer, the level of the code, and the phase of the IoT project.

Software Module Clustering: An In-Depth Literature Analysis

  • Autoři: Sarhan, Q., Al-Beywanee, B., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Zamli, Kamal Z.
  • Publikace: IEEE Transactions on Software Engineering. 2022, 48(6), 1905-1928. ISSN 0098-5589.
  • Rok: 2022
  • DOI: 10.1109/TSE.2020.3042553
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/TSE.2020.3042553
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Software module clustering is an unsupervised learning method used to cluster software entities (e.g., classes, modules, or files) with similar features. The obtained clusters may be used to study, analyze, and understand the software entities' structure and behavior. Implementing software module clustering with optimal results is challenging. Accordingly, researchers have addressed many aspects of software module clustering in the past decade. Thus, it is essential to present the research evidence that has been published in this area. In this study, 143 research papers from well-known literature databases that examined software module clustering were reviewed to extract useful data. The obtained data were then used to answer several research questions regarding state-of-the-art clustering approaches, applications of clustering in software engineering, clustering processes, clustering algorithms, and evaluation methods. Several research gaps and challenges in software module clustering are discussed in this paper to provide a useful reference for researchers in this field.

Visualizing Microservice Architecture in the Dynamic Perspective: A Systematic Mapping Study

  • Autoři: Gortney, M.E., Harris, P.E., Cerny, T., Maruf, A., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Taibi, D., Tisnovsky, P.
  • Publikace: IEEE Access. 2022, 10 119999-120012. ISSN 2169-3536.
  • Rok: 2022
  • DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3221130
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2022.3221130
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    As microservices become more popular, more drawbacks become apparent to developers. One issue that many teams face today is the failure to visualize the entire system architecture holistically. Without a full view of the system, the architecture can become convoluted as teams add and subtract from their system without reconciling their changes. One established practice to determine a view on the entire system involves dynamic analysis of microservice interaction and dependencies. In this mapping study, we investigate dynamic analysis as a way to visualize system architecture. Capturing the architectural view with dynamic analysis has the ability to build the system and then show its behavior at run-time. We identify dynamic analysis techniques, the corresponding tools, and the models that these practices can generate. The findings of this study are relevant to developers of decentralized systems looking for a way to visualize their system architecture in a dynamic perspective.

A Testing Tool for IoT Systems Operating with Limited Network Connectivity

  • Autoři: Klíma, M., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: Trends and Applications in Information Systems and Technologies. Cham: Springer, 2021. p. 570-576. vol. 3. ISSN 2194-5357. ISBN 978-3-030-72659-1.
  • Rok: 2021
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-72660-7_54
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72660-7_54
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    For Internet of Things (IoT) systems operating in areas with limited network connectivity, reliable and safe functionality must be ensured. This can be done using special test cases which are examining system behavior in cases of network outage and restoration. These test cases have to be optimal when approached from the testing effort viewpoint. When approached from the process viewpoint, in the sense that a business process supported by a tested system might be affected by a network outage and restoration, test cases can be automatically generated using a suitable model-based testing (MBT) technique. This technique is currently available in the open freeware Oxygen MBT tool. In this paper, we explain the principle of the technique, a process model of the tested system that may be affected by limited network connectivity, and support for this specialized MBT technique on the Oxygen platform.

Code Coverage Aware Test Generation Using Constraint Solver

  • Autoři: Sýkora, K., Al-Beywanee, B., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: Software Engineering and Formal Methods. SEFM 2020 Collocated Workshops. Basel: Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2021. p. 58-66. ISSN 0302-9743. ISBN 978-3-030-67219-5.
  • Rok: 2021
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-67220-1_5
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-67220-1_5
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Code coverage has been used in the software testing context mostly as a metric to assess a generated test suite’s quality. Recently, code coverage analysis is used as a white-box testing technique for test optimization. Most of the research activities focus on using code coverage for test prioritization and selection within automated testing strategies. Less effort has been paid in the literature to use code coverage for test generation. This paper introduces a new Code Coverage-based Test Case Generation (CCTG) concept that changes the current practices by utilizing the code coverage analysis in the test generation process. CCTG uses the code coverage data to calculate the input parameters’ impact for a constraint solver to automate the generation of effective test suites. We applied this approach to a few real-world case studies. The results showed that the new test generation approach could generate effective test cases and detect new faults.

On Microservice Analysis and Architecture Evolution: A Systematic Mapping Study

  • DOI: 10.3390/app11177856
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.3390/app11177856
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Microservice architecture has become the leading design for cloud-native systems. The highly decentralized approach to software development consists of relatively independent services, which provides benefits such as faster deployment cycles, better scalability, and good separation of concerns among services. With this new architecture, one can naturally expect a broad range of advancements and simplifications over legacy systems. However, microservice system design remains challenging, as it is still difficult for engineers to understand the system module boundaries. Thus, understanding and explaining the microservice systems might not be as easy as initially thought. This study aims to classify recently published approaches and techniques to analyze microservice systems. It also looks at the evolutionary perspective of such systems and their analysis. Furthermore, the identified approaches target various challenges and goals, which this study analyzed. Thus, it provides the reader with a roadmap to the discipline, tools, techniques, and open challenges for future work. It provides a guide towards choices when aiming for analyzing cloud-native systems. The results indicate five analytical approaches commonly used in the literature, possibly in combination, towards problems classified into seven categories.

PatrIoT: IoT Automated Interoperability and Integration Testing Framework

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Al-Beywanee, B., Rechtberger, V., Klíma, M., Trnka, M., Jaroš, M., Bellekens, X., Almog, D., Herout, P.
  • Publikace: IEEE 14th International Conference on Software Testing, Verification and Validation. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society Press, 2021. p. 454-459. ISSN 2159-4848. ISBN 978-1-7281-6836-4.
  • Rok: 2021
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICST49551.2021.00059
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICST49551.2021.00059
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    With the rapid growth of the contemporary Internet of Things (IoT) market, the established systems raise a number of concerns regarding the reliability and the potential presence of critical integration defects. In this paper, we present a PatrIoT framework that aims to provide flexible support to construct an effective IoT system testbed to implement automated interoperability and integration testing. The framework allows scaling from a pure physical testbed to a simulated environment using a number of predefined modules and elements to simulate an IoT device or part of the tested infrastructure. PatrIoT also contains a set of reference example testbeds and several sets of example automated tests for a smart street use case.

Quality and Reliability Metrics for IoT Systems: A Consolidated View

  • Autoři: Klíma, M., Rechtberger, V., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Bellekens, X., Hindy, H., Al-Beywanee, B.
  • Publikace: Science and Technologies for Smart Cities. Cham: Springer, 2021. p. 635-650. ISSN 1867-8211. ISBN 978-3-030-76062-5.
  • Rok: 2021
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-76063-2_42
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-76063-2_42
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Quality and reliability metrics play an important role in the evaluation of the state of a system during the development and testing phases, and serve as tools to optimize the testing process or to define the exit or acceptance criteria of the system. This study provides a consolidated view on the available quality and reliability metrics applicable to Internet of Things (IoT) systems, as no comprehensive study has provided such a view specific to these systems. The quality and reliability metrics categorized and discussed in this paper are divided into three categories: metrics assessing the quality of an IoT system or service, metrics for assessing the effectiveness of the testing process, and metrics that can be universally applied in both cases. In the discussion, recommendations of proper usage of discussed metrics in a testing process are then given.

Review of Specific Features and Challenges in the Current Internet of Things Systems Impacting Their Security and Reliability

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Klíma, M., Rechtberger, V., Al-Beywanee, B., Hindy, H., Bellekens, X.
  • Publikace: Trends and Applications in Information Systems and Technologies. Cham: Springer, 2021. p. 546-556. vol. 3. ISSN 2194-5357. ISBN 978-3-030-72659-1.
  • Rok: 2021
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-72660-7_52
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72660-7_52
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The current development of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology poses significant challenges to researchers and industry practitioners. Among these challenges, security and reliability particularly deserve attention. In this paper, we provide a consolidated analysis of the root causes of these challenges, their relations, and their possible impacts on IoT systems’ general quality characteristics. Further understanding of these challenges is useful for IoT quality engineers when defining testing strategies for their systems and researchers to consider when discussing possible research directions. In this study, twenty specific features of current IoT systems are discussed, divided into five main categories: (1) Economic, managerial and organisational aspects, (2) Infrastructural challenges, (3) Security and privacy challenges, (4) Complexity challenges and (5) Interoperability problems.

Technical Debt Resulting from Architectural Degradation and Code Smells: A Systematic Mapping Study

  • DOI: 10.1145/3512753.3512755
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3512753.3512755
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Poor design choices, bad coding practices, or the need to produce software quickly can stand behind technical debt. Unfortunately, manually identifying and managing technical debt gets more difficult as the software matures. Recent research offers various techniques to automate the process of detecting and managing technical debt to address these challenges. This manuscript presents a mapping study of the many aspects of technical debt that have been discovered in this field of study. This includes looking at the various forms of technical debt, as well as detection methods, the financial implications, and mitigation strategies. The findings and outcomes of this study are applicable to a wide range of software development life-cycle decisions.

Utilising Flow Aggregation to Classify Benign Imitating Attacks

  • Autoři: Hindy, H., Atkinson, R., Tachtatzis, Ch., Bayne, E., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Bellekens, X.
  • Publikace: Sensors - Open Access Journal. 2021, 21(5), 1-17. ISSN 1424-8220.
  • Rok: 2021
  • DOI: 10.3390/s21051761
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.3390/s21051761
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Cyber-attacks continue to grow, both in terms of volume and sophistication. This is aided by an increase in available computational power, expanding attack surfaces, and advancements in the human understanding of how to make attacks undetectable. Unsurprisingly, machine learning is utilised to defend against these attacks. In many applications, the choice of features is more important than the choice of model. A range of studies have, with varying degrees of success, attempted to discriminate between benign traffic and well-known cyber-attacks. The features used in these studies are broadly similar and have demonstrated their effectiveness in situations where cyber-attacks do not imitate benign behaviour. To overcome this barrier, in this manuscript, we introduce new features based on a higher level of abstraction of network traffic. Specifically, we perform flow aggregation by grouping flows with similarities. This additional level of feature abstraction benefits from cumulative information, thus qualifying the models to classify cyber-attacks that mimic benign traffic. The performance of the new features is evaluated using the benchmark CICIDS2017 dataset, and the results demonstrate their validity and effectiveness. This novel proposal will improve the detection accuracy of cyber-attacks and also build towards a new direction of feature extraction for complex ones.

A Comprehensive View on Quality Characteristics of the IoT Solutions

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Bellekens, X., Ing. Karel Frajták, Ph.D., Al-Beywanee, B.
  • Publikace: Proceedings of 3rd EAI International Conference on IoT in Urban Space. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2020. p. 59-69. ISSN 2522-8609. ISBN 978-3-030-28925-6.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-28925-6_6
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-28925-6_6
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Categorization of quality characteristics helps in a more effective structuring of the testing process and in the determination of properties, which can be verified in the system under test. In the emerging area of Internet of Things (IoT) systems, several individual attempts have been made to summarize these aspects, but the previous work is rather heterogenic and focuses on specific subareas. Hence, we consolidated the quality characteristics into one unified view, which specifically emphasizes the aspects of security, privacy, reliability, and usability, as these aspects are often quoted as major challenges in the quality of contemporary IoT systems. The consolidated view also covers other areas of system quality, which are relevant for IoT system testing and quality assurance. In the paper, we also discuss relevant synonyms of particular quality characteristics as presented in the literature or being used in the current industry praxis. The consolidated view uses two levels of characteristics to maintain a suitable level of granularity and specificity in the discussed quality characteristics.

A Review of Cyber-Ranges and Test-Beds: Current and Future Trends

  • Autoři: Ukwandu, E., Ben Farah, M., Hindy, H., Brosset, D., Kavallieros, D., Atkinson, R., Tachtatzis, C., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Andonovic, I., Bellekens, X.
  • Publikace: Sensors. 2020, 20(24), ISSN 1424-8220.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.3390/s20247148
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.3390/s20247148
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Cyber situational awareness has been proven to be of value in forming a comprehensive understanding of threats and vulnerabilities within organisations, as the degree of exposure is governed by the prevailing levels of cyber-hygiene and established processes. A more accurate assessment of the security provision informs on the most vulnerable environments that necessitate more diligent management. The rapid proliferation in the automation of cyber-attacks is reducing the gap between information and operational technologies and the need to review the current levels of robustness against new sophisticated cyber-attacks, trends, technologies and mitigation countermeasures has become pressing. A deeper characterisation is also the basis with which to predict future vulnerabilities in turn guiding the most appropriate deployment technologies. Thus, refreshing established practices and the scope of the training to support the decision making of users and operators. The foundation of the training provision is the use of Cyber-Ranges (CRs) and Test-Beds (TBs), platforms/tools that help inculcate a deeper understanding of the evolution of an attack and the methodology to deploy the most impactful countermeasures to arrest breaches. In this paper, an evaluation of documented CRs and TBs platforms is evaluated. CRs and TBs are segmented by type, technology, threat scenarios, applications and the scope of attainable training. To enrich the analysis of documented CRs and TBs research and cap the study, a taxonomy is developed to provide a broader comprehension of the future of CRs and TBs. The taxonomy elaborates on the CRs/TBs dimensions, as well as, highlighting a diminishing differentiation between application areas.

Alternative Effort-optimal Model-based Strategy for State Machine Testing of IoT Systems

  • Autoři: Rechtberger, V., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Al-Beywanee, B.
  • Publikace: Proceedings of The 2nd World Symposium on Software Engineering (WSSE 2020). New York: ACM, 2020. p. 141-145. ISBN 978-1-4503-8787-3.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1145/3425329.3425330
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3425329.3425330
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    To effectively test parts of the Internet of Things (IoT) systems having a character of a state machine, Model-based Testing (MBT) approach can be taken. In MBT, a model of a system is created, and test cases generated automatically from the model, and a number of current strategies exist. In this paper we propose a novel alternative strategy, that concurrently allows to flexibly adjust the preferred length of the generated test cases, as well as to mark the states, in which the test case can start and end. Compared with an intuitive N-switch coverage-based strategy that aims at the same goals, our proposal generates a lower number of shorter test cases with less test step duplications.

An Automated Testing Framework For Smart TV apps Based on Model Separation

  • Autoři: Al-Beywanee, B., Gargantini, A., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: IEEE International Conference on Software Testing Verification and Validation Workshop. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2020. p. 62-73. ISSN 2159-4848. ISBN 978-1-7281-1075-2.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICSTW50294.2020.00026
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSTW50294.2020.00026
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Smart TV application (app) is a new technological software app that can deal with smart TV devices to add more functionality and features. Despite its importance nowadays, far too little attention has been paid to present a systematic approach to test this kind of app so far. In this paper, we present a systematic model-based testing approach for smart TV app. We used our new notion of model separation to use sub-models based on the user preference instead of the exhaustive testing to generate the test cases. Based on the constructed model, we generated a set of test cases to assess the selected paths to the chosen destination in the app. We also defined new mutation operators for smart TV app to assess our testing approach. The evaluation results showed that our approach can generate more comprehensive models of smart TV apps with less time as compared to manual exploratory testing. The results also showed that our approach can generate effective test cases in term of fault detection.

Avocado: Open-Source Flexible Constrained Interaction Testing for Practical Application

  • Autoři: Richter, J., Al-Beywanee, B., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Junior, C.R.R.
  • Publikace: IEEE International Conference on Software Testing Verification and Validation Workshop. Los Alamitos: IEEE Computer Society, 2020. p. 185-190. ISSN 2159-4848. ISBN 978-1-7281-1075-2.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICSTW50294.2020.00040
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICSTW50294.2020.00040
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    This paper presents the outcome of a research collaboration between academia and industry to implement and utilize the capabilities of constrained interaction testing for an open-source tool for industrial-scale application. The project helps promote flexibility in generating constrained interaction test suites, executing them, and setting up a test oracle to report them-all within the same tool called Avocado. Avocado employs a constraint solver with computational algorithms to generate constrained interaction test suites. The environment of the application under test can be set up to execute the generated test suite with minimum effort. A test oracle can be set up by the tool to report the status and the results of the executed test cases. Avocado represents a comprehensive and flexible solution for conducting combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) and constrained CIT on an industrial application. In this paper, we present the structure of the tool and our method of implementing the algorithms in detail.

Dynamic Data Consistency Tests Using a CRUD Matrix as an Underlying Model

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Rechtberger, V.
  • Publikace: ESSE 2020: Proceedings of the 2020 European Symposium on Software Engineering. New York: ACM, 2020. p. 72-79. ISBN 978-1-4503-7762-1.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1145/3393822.3432333
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3393822.3432333
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    In testing of software and Internet of Things (IoT) systems, one of necessary type of tests has to verify the consistency of data that are processed and stored in the system. The Data Cycle Test technique can effectively do such tests. The goal of this technique is to verify that the system processes data entities in a system under test in a correct way and that they remain in a consistent state after operations such as create, read, update and delete. Create, read, update and delete (CRUD) matrices are used for this purpose. In this paper, we propose an extension of the Data Cycle Test design technique, which is described in the TMap methodology and related literature. This extension includes a more exact definition of the test coverage, a reflection of the relationships between the tested data entities, an exact algorithm to select and combine read and update operations in test cases for a particular data entity, and verification of the consistency of the produced test cases. As verified by our experiments, in comparison to the original Data Cycle Test technique, this proposed extension helps test designers to produce more consistent test cases that reduce the number of undetected potential data consistency defects.

Failure Prediction by Utilizing Log Analysis: A Systematic Mapping Study

  • Autoři: Das, D., Schiewe, M., Brighton, E., Fuller, M., Černý, T., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Ing. Karel Frajták, Ph.D., Shin, H., Tišnovský, P.
  • Publikace: Proceedings of the International Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems. New York: ACM, 2020. p. 188-195. ISSN 2153-1633. ISBN 978-1-4503-8025-6.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1145/3400286.3418263
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3400286.3418263
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    In modern computing, log files provide a wealth of information regarding the past of a system, including the system failures and security breaches that cost companies and developers a fortune in both time and money. While this information can be used to attempt to recover from a problem, such an approach merely mitigates the damage that has already been done. Detecting problems, however, is not the only information that can be gathered from log files. It is common knowledge that segments of log files, if analyzed correctly, can yield a good idea of what the system is likely going to do next in real-time, allowing a system to take corrective action before any negative actions occur. In this paper, the authors put forth a systematic map of this field of log prediction, screening several hundred papers and finally narrowing down the field to approximately 30 relevant papers. These papers, when broken down, give a good idea of the state of the art, methodologies employed, and future challenges that still must be overcome. Findings and conclusions of this study can be applied to a variety of software systems and components, including classical software systems, as well as software parts of control, or the Internet of Things (IoT) systems.

Interoperability and Integration Testing Methods for IoT Systems: a Systematic Mapping Study

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Klíma, M., Rechtberger, V., Bellekens, X., Tachtatzis, C., Atkinson, R., Al-Beywanee, B.
  • Publikace: Software Engineering and Formal Methods. Basel: Springer Nature Switzerland AG, 2020. p. 93-112. ISSN 0302-9743. ISBN 978-3-030-58767-3.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-58768-0_6
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-58768-0_6
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The recent active development of Internet of Things (IoT) solutions in various domains has led to an increased demand for security, safety, and reliability of these systems. Security and data privacy are currently the most frequently discussed topics; however, other reliability aspects also need to be focused on to maintain smooth and safe operation of IoT systems. Until now, there has been no systematic mapping study dedicated to the topic of interoperability and integration testing of IoT systems specifically; therefore, we present such an overview in this study. We analyze 803 papers from four major primary databases and perform detailed assessment and quality check to find 115 relevant papers. In addition, recently published testing techniques and approaches are analyzed and classified; the challenges and limitations in the field are also identified and discussed. Research trends related to publication time, active researchers, and publication media are presented in this study. The results suggest that studies mainly focus only on general testing methods, which can be applied to integration and interoperability testing of IoT systems; thus, there are research opportunities to develop additional testing methods focused specifically on IoT systems, so that they are more effective in the IoT context.

Machine Learning Based IoT Intrusion Detection System: An MQTT Case Study

  • Autoři: Hindy, H., Bayne, E., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Atkinson, R., Tachtatzis, Ch., Bellekens, X.
  • Publikace: Selected Papers from the 12th International Networking Conference. Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2020. p. 73-84. ISSN 2367-3370. ISBN 978-3-030-64757-5.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-64758-2_6
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-64758-2_6
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The Internet of Things (IoT) is one of the main research fields in the Cybersecurity domain. This is due to (a) the increased dependency on automated device, and (b) the inadequacy of general-purpose Intrusion Detection Systems (IDS) to be deployed for special purpose networks usage. Numerous lightweight protocols are being proposed for IoT devices communication usage. One of the distinguishable IoT machine-to-machine communication protocols is Message Queuing Telemetry Transport (MQTT) protocol. However, as per the authors best knowledge, there are no available IDS datasets that include MQTT benign or attack instances and thus, no IDS experimental results available.

On Code Analysis Opportunities and Challenges for Enterprise Systems and Microservices

  • DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3019985
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3019985
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Code analysis brings excellent benefits to software development, maintenance, and quality assurance. Various tools can uncover code defects or even software bugs in a range of seconds. For many projects and developers, the code analysis tools became essential in their daily routines. However, how can code analysis help in an enterprise environment? Enterprise software solutions grow in scale and complexity. These solutions no longer involve only plain objects and basic language constructs but operate with various components and mechanisms simplifying the development of such systems. Enterprise software vendors have adopted various development and design standards; however, there is a gap between what constructs the enterprise frameworks use and what current code analysis tools recognize. This manuscript aims to challenge the mainstream research directions of code analysis and motivate for a transition towards code analysis of enterprise systems with interesting problems and opportunities. In particular, this manuscript addresses selected enterprise problems apparent for monolithic and distributed enterprise solutions. It also considers challenges related to the recent architectural push towards a microservice architecture. Along with open-source proof-of-concept prototypes to some of the challenges, this manuscript elaborates on code analysis directions and their categorization. Furthermore, it suggests one possible perspective of the problem area using aspect-oriented programming.

On Matching Log Analysis to Source Code: A Systematic Mapping Study

  • Autoři: Bushong, V., Russell, S., Curtis, J., Du, M., Černý, T., Ing. Karel Frajták, Ph.D., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Tisnovský, P., Shin, D.
  • Publikace: Proceedings of the International Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems. New York: ACM, 2020. p. 181-187. ISSN 2153-1633. ISBN 978-1-4503-8025-6.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1145/3400286.3418262
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3400286.3418262
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Logging is a vital part of the software development process. Developers use program logging to monitor program execution and identify errors and anomalies. These errors may also cause uncaught exceptions and generate stack traces that help identify the point of error. Both of these sources contain information that can be matched to points in the source code, but manual log analysis is challenging for large systems that create large volumes of logs and have large codebases. In this paper, we contribute a systematic mapping study to determine the state-of-the-art tools and methods used to perform automatic log analysis and stack trace analysis and match the extracted information back to the program's source code. We analyzed 16 publications that address this issue, summarizing their strategies and goals, and we identified open research directions from this body of work.

On Vulnerability and Security Log analysis: A Systematic Literature Review on Recent Trends

  • Autoři: Svacina, J., Raffety, J., Woodahl, C., Stone, B., Černý, T., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Shin, D., Ing. Karel Frajták, Ph.D., Tisnovsky, P.
  • Publikace: Proceedings of the International Conference on Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems. New York: ACM, 2020. p. 175-180. ISSN 2153-1633. ISBN 978-1-4503-8025-6.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1145/3400286.3418261
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3400286.3418261
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Log analysis is a technique of deriving knowledge from log files containing records of events in a computer system. A common application of log analysis is to derive critical information about a system's security issues and intrusions, which subsequently leads to being able to identify and potentially stop intruders attacking the system. However, many systems produce a high volume of log data with high frequency, posing serious challenges in analysis. This paper contributes with a systematic literature review and discusses current trends, advancements, and future directions in log security analysis within the past decade. We summarized current research strategies with respect to technology approaches from 34 current publications. We identified limitations that poses challenges to future research and opened discussion on issues towards logging mechanism in the software systems. Findings of this study are relevant for software systems as well as software parts of the Internet of Things (IoT) systems.

Open-source Defect Injection Benchmark Testbed for the Evaluation of Testing

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Herout, P., Al-Beywanee, B.
  • Publikace: 2020 IEEE 13th International Conference on Software Testing, Validation and Verification. Cannes: IEEE Computer Society, 2020. p. 442-447. ISSN 2159-4848. ISBN 978-1-7281-5778-8.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICST46399.2020.00059
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICST46399.2020.00059
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    A natural method to evaluate the effectiveness of a testing technique is to measure the defect detection rate when applying the created test cases. Here, real or artificial software defects can be injected into the source code of software. For a more extensive evaluation, injection of artificial defects is usually needed and can be performed via mutation testing using code mutation operators. However, to simulate complex defects arising from a misunderstanding of design specifications, mutation testing might reach its limit in some cases. In this paper, we present an open-source benchmark testbed application that employs a complement method of artificial defect injection. The application is compiled after artificial defects are injected into its source code from predefined building blocks. The majority of the functions and user interface elements are covered by creating front-end-based automated test cases that can be used in experiments.

Securing Internet of Things Devices Using The Network Context

  • Autoři: Trnka, M., Svacina, J., Cerny, T., Song, E., Hong, J., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: IEEE TRANSACTIONS ON INDUSTRIAL INFORMATICS. 2020, 16(6), 4017-4027. ISSN 1551-3203.
  • Rok: 2020
  • DOI: 10.1109/TII.2019.2954100
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/TII.2019.2954100
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Internet of Things (IoT) devices have been widely adopted in recent years. Unlike conventional information systems, IoT solutions have greater access to real-world contextual data and are typically deployed in an environment that cannot be fully controlled, and these circumstances create new challenges and opportunities. In this article, we leverage the knowledge that an IoT device has about its network context to provide an additional security factor. The device periodically scans a network and reports a list of all devices in the network. The server analyzes movements in the network and subsequently reacts to suspicious events. This article describes how our method can detect network changes, retrieved only from scanning devices in the network. To demonstrate the proposed solution, we perform a multiweek case study on a network with hundreds of active devices and confirm that our method can detect network anomalies or changes.

Testing the Usability and Accessibility of Smart TV Applications Using an Automated Model-Based Approach

  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2020.2986049
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/TCE.2020.2986049
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačové grafiky a interakce, Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    As the popularity of Smart Televisions (TVs) and interactive Smart TV applications (apps) has recently grown, the usability of these apps has become an important quality characteristic. Previous studies examined Smart TV apps from a usability perspective. However, these methods are mainly manual, and the potential of automated model-based testing methods for usability testing purposes has not yet been fully explored. In this article, we propose an approach to test the usability of Smart TV apps based on the automated generation of a Smart TV user interaction model from an existing app by a specialized automated crawler. By means of this model, defined user tasks in the Smart TV app can be evaluated automatically in terms of their feasibility and estimated user effort, which reflects the usability of the analyzed app. This analysis can be applied in the context of regular users and users with various specific needs. The findings from this model-based automated analysis approach can be used to optimize the user interface of a Smart TV app to increase its usability, accessibility, and quality.

Aspects of Quality in Internet of Things (IoT) Solutions: A Systematic Mapping Study

  • DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2893493
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2019.2893493
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Internet of Things (IoT) is an emerging technology that has the promising power to change our future. Due to the market pressure, IoT systems may be released without sufficient testing. However, it is no longer acceptable to release IoT systems to the market without assuring the quality. As in the case of new technologies, the quality assurance process is a challenging task. This paper shows the results of the first comprehensive and systematic mapping study to structure and categories the research evidence in the literature starting in 2009 when the early publication of IoT papers for IoT quality assurance appeared. The conducted research is based on the most recent guidelines on how to perform systematic mapping studies. A set of research questions is defined carefully regarding the quality aspects of the IoT. Based on these questions, a large number of evidence and research papers is considered in the study (478 papers). We have extracted and analyzed different levels of information from those considered papers. Also, we have classified the topics addressed in those papers into categories based on the quality aspects. The study results carry out different areas that require more work and investigation in the context of IoT quality assurance. The results of the study can help in a further understanding of the research gaps. Moreover, the results show a roadmap for future research directions.

Code-aware combinatorial interaction testing

  • Autoři: Ahmed, B., Gargantini, A., Zamli, Z., Yilmaz, C., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Szeles, M.
  • Publikace: IET Software. 2019, 13(6), 600-609. ISSN 1751-8806.
  • Rok: 2019
  • DOI: 10.1049/iet-sen.2018.5315
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1049/iet-sen.2018.5315
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) is a useful testing technique to address the interaction of input parameters in software systems. CIT has been used as a systematic technique to sample the enormous test possibilities. Most of the research activities focused on the generation of CIT test suites as a computationally complex problem. Less effort has been paid for the application of CIT. To apply CIT, practitioners must identify the input parameters for the Software-under-test (SUT), feed these parameters to the CIT test generation tool, and then run those tests on the application with some pass and fail criteria for verification. Using this approach, CIT is used as a black-box testing technique without knowing the effect of the internal code. Although useful, practically, not all the parameters having the same impact on the SUT. This paper introduces a different approach to use the CIT as a gray-box testing technique by considering the internal code structure of the SUT to know the impact of each input parameter and thus use this impact in the test generation stage. The case studies results showed that this approach would help to detect new faults as compared to the equal impact parameter approach.

Employment of Multiple Algorithms for Optimal Path-based Test Selection Strategy

  • DOI: 10.1016/j.infsof.2019.06.006
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.infsof.2019.06.006
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Executing various sequences of system functions in a system under test represents one of the primary techniques in software testing. The natural method for creating effective, consistent and efficient test sequences is to model the system under test and employ an algorithm to generate tests that satisfy a defined test coverage criterion. Several criteria for preferred test set properties can be defined. In addition, to optimize the test set from an economic viewpoint, the priorities of the various parts of the system model under test must be defined. Objective: Using this prioritization, the test cases exercise the high-priority parts of the system under test by more path combinations than those with low priority (this prioritization can be combined with the test coverage criterion that determines how many path combinations of the individual parts of the system are tested). Evidence from the literature and our observations confirm that finding a universal algorithm that produces a test set with preferred properties for all test coverage criteria is a challenging task. Moreover, for different individual problem instances, different algorithms provide results with the best value of a preferred property. In this paper, we present a portfolio-based strategy to perform the best test selection. Method: The proposed strategy first employs a set of current algorithms to generate test sets; then, a preferred property of each test set is assessed in terms of the selected criterion, and finally, the test set with the best value of a preferred property is chosen.

EvoCreeper: Automated Black-Box Model Generation for Smart TV Applications

  • DOI: 10.1109/TCE.2019.2907017
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/TCE.2019.2907017
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Smart TVs are coming to dominate the television market. This accompanied by an increase in the use of the smart TV applications (apps). Due to the increasing demand, developers need modeling techniques to analyze these apps and assess their comprehensiveness, completeness, and quality. In this paper, we present an automated strategy for generating models of smart TV apps based on a black-box reverse engineering. The strategy can be used to cumulatively construct a model for a given app by exploring the user interface in a manner consistent with the use of a remote control device and extracting the runtime information. The strategy is based on capturing the states of the user interface to create a model during runtime without any knowledge of the internal structure of the app. We have implemented our strategy in a tool called EvoCreeper. The evaluation results show that our strategy can automatically generate unique states and a comprehensive model that represents the real user interactions with an app using a remote control device. The models thus generated can be used to assess the quality and completeness of smart TV apps in various contexts, such as the control of other consumer electronics in smart houses.

Internet of Things: Current Challenges in the Quality Assurance and Testing Methods

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Černý, T., Al-Beywanee, B.
  • Publikace: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., 2019. p. 625-634. 1. vol. 514. ISSN 1876-1100. ISBN 9789811310553.
  • Rok: 2019
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-13-1056-0_61
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-13-1056-0_61
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Contemporary development of the Internet of Things (IoT) technology brings a number of challenges in the Quality Assurance area. Current issues related to security, user’s privacy, the reliability of the service, interoperability, and integration are discussed. All these create a demand for specific Quality Assurance methodology for the IoT solutions. In the paper, we present the state of the art of this domain and we discuss particular areas of system testing discipline, which is not covered by related work sufficiently so far. This analysis is supported by results of a recent survey we performed among ten IoT solutions providers, covering various areas of IoT applications.

Prioritized Process Test: An Alternative to Current Process Testing Strategies

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Ahmed, B., Zamli, K.
  • Publikace: International Journal of Software Engineering and Knowledge Engineering. 2019, 29(7), 997-1028. ISSN 0218-1940.
  • Rok: 2019
  • DOI: 10.1142/S0218194019500335
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218194019500335
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Testing processes and workflows in information and Internet of Things systems is a major part of the typical software testing effort. Consistent and efficient path-based test cases are desired to support these tests. Because certain parts of software system workflows have a higher business priority than others, this fact has to be involved in the generation of test cases. In this paper, we propose a Prioritized Process Test (PPT), which is a model-based test case generation algorithm that represents an alternative to currently established algorithms that use directed graphs and test requirements to model the system under test. The PPT accepts a directed multigraph as a model to express priorities, and edge weights are used instead of test requirements. To determine the test-coverage level of test cases, a test-depth-level concept is used. We compared the presented PPT with five alternatives (i.e. the Process Cycle Test (PCT), a naive reduction of test set created by the PCT, Brute Force algorithm, Set-covering-Based Solution and Matching-based Prefix Graph Solution) for edge coverage and edge-pair coverage. To assess the optimality of the path-based test cases produced by these strategies, we used 14 metrics based on the properties of these test cases and 59 models that were created for three real-world systems. For all edge coverage, the PPT produced more optimal test cases than the alternatives in terms of the majority of the metrics. For edge-pair coverage, the PPT strategy yielded similar results to those of the alternatives. Thus, the PPT strategy is an applicable alternative as it reflects both the required test coverage level and the business priority in parallel.

Testing of Smart TV Applications: Key Ingredients, Challenges and Proposed Solutions

  • Autoři: Al-Beywanee, B., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: Proceedings of the Future Technologies Conference (FTC) 2018. Wien: Springer, 2019. p. 241-256. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. vol. 880. ISBN 978-3-030-02685-1.
  • Rok: 2019
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-02686-8_20
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-02686-8_20
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Smart TV applications are software applications that have been designed to run on smart TVs which are televisions with integrated Internet features. Nowadays, the smart TVs are going to dominate the television market, and the number of connected TVs is growing exponentially. This growth is accompanied by the increase of consumers and the use of smart TV applications that drive these devices. Due to the increasing demand for smart TV applications especially with the rise of the Internet of Things (IoT) services, it is essential to building an application with a certain level of quality. Despite the analogy between the smart TV and mobile apps, testing smart TV applications is different in many aspects due to the different nature of user interaction and development environment. To develop the field and formulate the concepts of smart TV application testing, this paper aims to provide the essential ingredients, solutions, answers to the most critical questions, and open problems. In addition, we offer initial results and proof of concepts for a creeper algorithm to detect essential views of the applications. This paper serves as an effort to report the key ingredients and challenges of the smart TV application testing systematically to the research community.

Testing the consistency of business data objects using extended static testing of CRUD matrices

  • DOI: 10.1007/s10586-017-1118-7
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10586-017-1118-7
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Static testing is used to detect software defects in the earlier phases of the software development lifecycle, which makes the total costs caused by defects lower and the software development project less risky. Different types of static testing have been introduced and are used in software projects. In this paper, we focus on static testing related to data consistency in a software system. In particular, we propose extensions to contemporary static testing techniques based on CRUD matrices, employing cross-verifications between various types of CRUD matrices made by different parties at various stages of the software project. Based on performed experiments, the proposed static testing technique significantly improves the consistency of Data Cycle Test cases. Together with this trend, we observe growing potential of test cases to detect data consistency defects in the system under test, when utilizing the proposed technique.

Towards an Automated Unified Framework to Run Applications for Combinatorial Interaction Testing

  • Autoři: Al-Beywanee, B., Pahim, A., Rosa, C., Kuhn, D., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: PROCEEDINGS OF EASE 2019 - EVALUATION AND ASSESSMENT IN SOFTWARE ENGINEERING. The ACM Digital Library, 2019. p. 252-258. ISBN 978-1-4503-7145-2.
  • Rok: 2019
  • DOI: 10.1145/3319008.3319348
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/3319008.3319348
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) is a well-known technique, but the industrial experience is needed to determine its effectiveness in different application domains. We present a case study introducing a unified framework for generating, executing and verifying CIT test suites, based on the open-source Avocado test framework. In addition, we present a new industrial case study to demonstrate the effectiveness of the framework. This evaluation showed that the new framework can generate, execute, and verify effective combinatorial interaction test suites for detecting configuration failures (invalid configurations) in a virtualization system.

A hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine-based strategy for addressing the combinatorial test suite minimization problem

  • DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0195675
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0195675
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The sine-cosine algorithm (SCA) is a new population-based meta-heuristic algorithm. In addition to exploiting sine and cosine functions to perform local and global searches (hence the name sine-cosine), the SCA introduces several random and adaptive parameters to facilitate the search process. Although it shows promising results, the search process of the SCA is vulnerable to local minima/maxima due to the adoption of a fixed switch probability and the bounded magnitude of the sine and cosine functions (from -1 to 1). In this paper, we propose a new hybrid Q-learning sine-cosine- based strategy, called the Q-learning sinecosine algorithm (QLSCA). Within the QLSCA, we eliminate the switching probability. Instead, we rely on the Q-learning algorithm (based on the penalty and reward mechanism) to dynamically identify the best operation during runtime. Additionally, we integrate two new operations (Levy flight motion and crossover) into the QLSCA to facilitate jumping out of local minima/maxima and enhance the solution diversity. To assess its performance, we adopt the QLSCA for the combinatorial test suite minimization problem. Experimental results reveal that the QLSCA is statistically superior with regard to test suite size reduction compared to recent state-of-the-art strategies, including the original SCA, the particle swarm test generator (PSTG), adaptive particle swarm optimization (APSO) and the cuckoo search strategy (CS) at the 95% confidence level. However, concerning the comparison with discrete particle swarm optimization (DPSO), there is no significant difference in performance at the 95% confidence level. On a positive note, the QLSCA statistically outperforms the DPSO in certain configurations at the 90% confidence level.

Conceptual Approach for Reuse of Test Automation Artifacts on Various Architectural Levels

  • Autoři: Almog, D., Chassidim, H.S., Tsubery, Y., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Mark, S.
  • Publikace: COMSIS - Computer Science and Information Systems. 2018, 15(2), 449-472. ISSN 1820-0214.
  • Rok: 2018
  • DOI: 10.2298/CSIS170701006A
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.2298/CSIS170701006A
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    When creating a test automation infrastructure, one of the main considerations for the buildup process is its efficiency. A main cause and method for improvement might come from reuse of test automation artifacts. Following that, one may ask "To what extent can the test automation artifacts be re-used?". In this paper we present a model and test automation architecture for achieving such a goal. Repository Driven Test Automation (RDTA) is a conceptual approach for the buildup process of test automation infrastructure that employs reuse of testing artifacts. This paper discusses aspects of reuse of software test automation artifacts on various levels. Then, practical implications and adjustments arising from the implementation of this new paradigm are discussed. The proposed concept is documented by a case study in an international innovative computer hardware manufacturer, one of leaders in the market. The documented results are significant and confirm the validity of the concept.

Identification of Potential Reusable Subroutines in Recorded Automated Test Scripts

  • DOI: 10.1142/S0218194018500018
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1142/S0218194018500018
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    In the automated testing based on actions in user interface of the tested application, one of the key challenges is maintenance of these tests. The maintenance overhead can be decreased by suitably structuring the test scripts, typically by employing reusable objects. To aid in the development, maintenance and refactoring of these test scripts, potentially reusable objects can be identified by a semi-automated process. In this paper, we propose a solution that identifies the potentially reusable objects in a set of automated test scripts and then provides developers with suggestions about these objects. During this process, we analyze the semantics of specific test steps using a system of abstract signatures. The solution can be used to identify the potentially reusable objects in both recorded automated test sets and tests programmed in an unstructured style. Moreover, compared to approaches that are based solely on searching for repetitive source code fragments, the proposed system identifies potentially reusable objects that are more relevant for test automation.

Tapir: Automation Support of Exploratory Testing Using Model Reconstruction of the System Under Test

  • DOI: 10.1109/TR.2018.2799957
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/TR.2018.2799957
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    For a considerable number of software projects, the creation of effective test cases is hindered by design documentation that is either lacking, incomplete or obsolete. The exploratory testing approach can serve as a sound method in such situations. However, the efficiency of this testing approach strongly depends on the method, the documentation of explored parts of a system, the organization and distribution of work among individual testers on a team, and the minimization of potential (very probable) duplicities in performed tests. In this paper, we present a framework for replacing and automating a portion of these tasks. A screen-flow-based model of the tested system is incrementally reconstructed during the exploratory testing process by tracking testers’ activities. With additional metadata, the model serves for an automated navigation process for a tester. Compared with the exploratory testing approach, which is manually performed in two case studies, the proposed framework allows the testers to explore a greater extent of the tested system and enables greater detection of the defects present in the system. The results show that the time efficiency of the testing process improved with framework support. This efficiency can be increased by team-based navigational strategies that are implemented within the proposed framework, which is documented by another case study presented in this paper.

Constrained Interaction Testing: A Systematic Literature Study

  • DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2771562
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ACCESS.2017.2771562
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Interaction testing can be used to effectively detect faults that are otherwise difficult to find by other testing techniques. However, in practice, the input configurations of software systems are subjected to constraints, especially in the case of highly configurable systems. Handling constraints effectively and efficiently in combinatorial interaction testing is a challenging problem. Nevertheless, researchers have attacked this challenge through different techniques, and much progress has been achieved in the past decade. Thus, it is useful to reflect on the current achievements and shortcomings and to identify potential areas of improvements. This paper presents the first comprehensive and systematic literature study to structure and categorize the research contributions for constrained interaction testing. Following the guidelines of conducting a literature study, the relevant data is extracted from a set of 103 research papers belonging to constrained interaction testing. The topics addressed in constrained interaction testing research are classified into four categories of constraint test generation, application, generation & application and model validation studies. The papers within each of these categories are extensively reviewed. Apart from answering several other research questions, this study also discusses the applications of constrained interaction testing in several domains such as software product lines, fault detection & characterization, test selection, security and GUI testing. The study ends with a discussion of limitations, challenges and future work in the area.

Exploratory testing supported by automated reengineering of model of the system under test

  • DOI: 10.1007/s10586-017-0773-z
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10586-017-0773-z
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Exploratory Testing technique is well applicable to software development projects, where test basis is not available (or at least not complete and consistent to the extent allowing the creation of efficient test cases). The key factor for the efficiency of this technique is a structured process for the recording of explored path in the system under test. This approach also allows the creation of the test cases during exploratory testing process. These test cases can be used in the following re-testing of the system. If performed manually, the efficiency of such process strongly depends on the team organization and systematic work of the individuals in the team. This process can be aided by an automated support. In the paper, a framework, which automatically records selected tester’s actions in the system under test is presented. From these recordings, a model of the screen and action flows is reengineered and test cases are prepared. Tester is also able to define more meta-data in the test cases during this process. The recorded model and defined test cases are then available for the next rounds of testing. The performed case study shows that Exploratory Testing aided by this machine support is less resource demanding than Exploratory Testing performed manually only. Also, larger part of SUT was explored during the tests, when this systematic support was available to testers.

Framework for Integration Testing of IoT Solutions

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: Proceedings of 2017 International Conference on Computational Science and Computational Intelligence CSCI 2017. Los Alamitos: Conference publishing Services, 2017. p. 1838-1839. ISBN 978-1-5386-2652-8.
  • Rok: 2017
  • DOI: 10.1109/CSCI.2017.335
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/CSCI.2017.335
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The Internet of Things (IoT) technology raises specific demands to testing and quality assurance in a number of areas, as security, privacy, reliability, interoperability or integration. In the paper, we focus on the interoperability and integration issues. We present a concept of specialized testing framework, which is based on a hybrid of IoT infrastructure simulation and integration testing approach. The aim of the framework is to decrease IoT testing costs together with increasing of test coverage and potential of the tests to detect relevant defects in the IoT solution.

On the Effectiveness of Combinatorial Interaction Testing: A Case Study

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Al-Beywanee, B.
  • Publikace: Proceedings of 2017 IEEE International Conference on Software Quality, Reliability and Security Companion. IEEE Reliability Society, 2017. p. 69-76. ISBN 978-1-5386-2072-4.
  • Rok: 2017
  • DOI: 10.1109/QRS-C.2017.20
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/QRS-C.2017.20
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Combinatorial interaction testing (CIT) stands as one of the efficient testing techniques that have been used in different applications recently. The technique is useful when there is a need to take the interaction of input parameters into consideration for testing a system. The key insight the technique is that not every single parameter may contribute to the failure of the system and there could be interactions among these parameters. Hence, there must be combinations of these input parameters based on the interaction strength. This technique has been used in many applications to assess its effectiveness. In this paper, we are addressing the effectiveness of CIT for a real-world case study using model-based mutation testing experiments. The contribution of the paper is threefold: First we introduce an effective testing application for CIT; Second, we address the effectiveness of increasing the interaction strength beyond the pairwise (i.e., interaction of more than two parameters); Third, model-based mutation testing is used to mutate the input model of the program in contrast to the traditional code-based mutation testing process. Experimental results showed that CIT is an effective testing technique for this kind of application. In addition, the results also showed the usefulness of model-based mutation testing to assess CIT applications. For the subject of this case study, the results also indicate that 3-way test suite (i.e., interaction of three parameters) could detect new faults that can not be detected by pairwise.

Prioritized Process Test: More Efficiency in Testing of Business Processes and Workflows

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Černý, T., Klíma, M.
  • Publikace: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., 2017. p. 585-593. vol. 424. ISSN 1876-1100. ISBN 978-981-10-4153-2.
  • Rok: 2017
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-4154-9_67
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4154-9_67
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Testing business processes and workflows in information systems, while aiming to cover all possible paths, requires high efforts demanding considerable costs. In this paper, we propose an algorithm generating a path-based test cases from the system model, based on weighted directed graph. The approach brings an alternative to the currently established test requirements concept. The algorithm reflects various levels of priorities of particular functions in the tested system, previously defined by the test designer. When compared to simulated naive approaches based on reverse reduction of test set, our proposed algorithm produces more efficient test cases in terms of number of the total test steps, whilst keeping the same level of test coverage of the priority functions of the tested system.

Static Testing Using Different Types of CRUD Matrices

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Černý, T.
  • Publikace: Lecture Notes in Electrical Engineering. Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd., 2017. p. 594-602. vol. 424. ISSN 1876-1100. ISBN 978-981-10-4153-2.
  • Rok: 2017
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-981-10-4154-9_68
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-10-4154-9_68
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Static testing leads to early detection of defects throughout a project software development. This results in reduced costs and risks in the development pro-cess. Various types of static tests can be performed. In this paper, we propose extensions to contemporary static testing techniques based on CRUD matrices. In particular, we consider cross-verification between various types of CRUD matrices made by different parties at different stages of the pro-ject. This leads into extended the verification consistency of a CRUD matrix. In our evaluation, proposed techniques lead to significantly more consistent test Data Cycle Test cases, when involving our static testing techniques. Moreover, our results indicate positive impact on lowering the number of defects that usually remain undetected under the system test.

Efektivní testování softwaru

  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Jednotlivá témata knihy byla vybrána na základě průzkumu, jaké oblasti v testování software jsou v současné době vnímány jako klíčové a nejvíce problematické. Odpovědět by vám měla: Jak testování software realisticky odhadovat a plánovat? Co na projektu zajistit, abychom byli schopni účinně řídit testování a mít přehled, zda jsou konkrétní testy efektivní? Jak měřit účinnost testování tak, abychom mohli celý proces vylepšovat? Jak zajistit co nejstabilnější testovací prostředí a kvalitní data pro testování? Jak do celého procesu co nejlépe zapojit investora a budoucí uživatele? Jak si poradit, kdy testovací projekt není v dobrém stavu a situaci potřebujeme co nejrychleji zlepšit?

Model–Based Testing and Exploratory Testing: Is Synergy Possible?

  • DOI: 10.1109/ICITCS.2016.7740354
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICITCS.2016.7740354
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů, Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    Model–based testing represents an efficient method to detect software defects. This approach has a limitation, when the model of the system under test is inconsistent, incomplete, or, does not exist at all. An exploratory testing approach represents an alternative for such situations: initially it does not require a model of the tested system. The testers are using their skills and intuition to explore the system. Nevertheless, this technique has also its disadvantages. For example, it is hard to measure the effectiveness of the testing or to re–evaluate certain test when the explored path and exercised test cases are not being documented properly. In this paper, we are proposing a technique that utilizes advantages of the both model–based testing and exploratory testing and tries to eliminate their issues. The model of the application is dynamically created and updated in the exploratory stage when state data (the page user is currently on, all input, action and link elements) and every step that was taken is recorded. This structure documents what parts of the tested system were explored and what parts has to be explored later on. Recorded steps are also converted to test case scenario that can be reused later in the testing process.

SmartDriver: Extension of Selenium WebDriver to Create More Efficient Automated Tests

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Filipský, M.
  • Publikace: Proceedings of the 6th International Conference on IT Convergence and Security (ICITCS 2016). Red Hook: Curran Associates, Inc., 2016. p. 319-322. ISSN 2473-0122. ISBN 978-1-5090-3765-0.
  • Rok: 2016
  • DOI: 10.1109/ICITCS.2016.7740370
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1109/ICITCS.2016.7740370
  • Pracoviště: Laboratoř inteligentního testování systémů
  • Anotace:
    The SmartDriver framework is an open extension of Selenium WebDriver framework aimed at decreasing implementation and maintenance costs of automated tests. It composes from two principal modules working in synergy. The structuring module ensuring three layer architecture of reusable objects, page objects and tests. Besides decreasing of implementation and maintenance costs, this module allows to create tests which can be easily read by testers or business analysts without previous extensive programming knowledge. The maintenance module then decreases time needed to update the scripts. When a test fails when locating a page element which does not exist due to obsolete test script, SmartDriver automatically analyzes if the element has been just moved to another place in the page. If so, it gives this information to the script developer.

Automated Optimization of Functional Recorded Tests

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Functional automated testing of software systems represents a challenge. Rapidly changing systems and Agile processes require delivering automation as soon as possible. Good test maintenance in this environment attracts more attention. In this paper, we present a test recoding technique enhanced by post-processing finding reusable routines in tests. We use computed data about tests to create a hierarchical structure of reusable functions on top of the test recordings. Reusable functions help automation engineers to maintain test suites and to decrease the overhead of test maintenance related to the inefficient test recording approach. Experimental results from verification of the solution on an industrial project are promising.

Creating Smart Tests from Recorded Automated Test Cases

  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16486-1_76
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16486-1_76
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    In order to shorten time to market many software development teams have adopted continuous integration and automated testing. Although user interface test automation is a suitable solution for Agile development, the resulting frequently changing application gives rise to challenging task, especially from the point-of-view of maintenance. In this paper, we present an approach bypassing those drawbacks through test recording enhanced by post-processing that creates smart tests that are easy to maintain. We have analyzed recorded tests and created step signatures that we then use to find a sequence of common steps. Based on this, we identify reusable parts which we consequently optimize using algorithms that are introduced in this paper to remove inefficient duplications in tests.

Framework for Assessment of Web Application Automated Testability

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: Proceeding of the 2015 Research in Adaptive and Convergent Systems (RACS 2015). New York: ACM, 2015. pp. 512-514. ISBN 978-1-4503-3738-0.
  • Rok: 2015
  • DOI: 10.1145/2811411.2811557
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/2811411.2811557
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Implementation and maintenance costs of frontend automated tests depend on quality of the frontend code. By this quality we mean testability of the frontend by an automated test script and its compliance to industry standards. In the paper, we present semi-automated framework for assessment of this automated testability. The solution is based on crawling of the tested application frontend web pages and computation of set of specific metrics for frontend individual pages and the tested system. The metrics then aids automated testability assessment process to be more thorough and time efficient.

Metrics for Automated Testability of Web Applications

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computer Systems and Technologies. New York: ACM, 2015. p. 83-89. ISBN 978-1-4503-3357-3.
  • Rok: 2015
  • DOI: 10.1145/2812428.2812458
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/2812428.2812458
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    The paper presents the set of metrics for automated testability of web application and categorizes them by principal areas of automated testability assessment. The presented set of metrics focuses on areas as stability of the system under test, quality of front-end pages from the automated testability point of view, occurrence of elements which are difficult to automate and other related areas. The presented set of metrics are aiding the test analyst to set a scope suitable to automate and estimate potential development and maintenance costs.

Model for Evaluation and Cost Estimations of the Automated Testing Architecture

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: New Contributions in Information Systems and Technologies. Heidelberg: Springer, 2015. p. 781-787. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. ISSN 2194-5357. ISBN 978-3-319-16485-4.
  • Rok: 2015
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16486-1_77
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16486-1_77
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    In the automated testing, finding an optimal architecture of the scripts and level of structuring to reusable objects from an economic point of view could become a challenging task. The optimality of the architecture of automated test scripts is context dependent and many factors are playing role in the final economics of the test automation project. To support this task with an exact method, we propose a model for evaluation of the automated testing architecture. This model is based on principal structural elements, which can be identified in the automated test scripts. Elements are then composed the particular architecture and for each of them, a set of properties and metrics are defined. Using the proposed metrics, more accurate estimations of implementation and maintenance costs can be performed for the particular architecture and test automation case, especially reflecting duplicity and reuse ratio of the code.

PCTgen: Automated Generation of Test Cases for Application Workflows

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: New Contributions in Information Systems and Technologies. Heidelberg: Springer, 2015. p. 789-794. Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing. ISSN 2194-5357. ISBN 978-3-319-16485-4.
  • Rok: 2015
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-319-16486-1_78
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-16486-1_78
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Functional testing of application workflows is one of the most frequently used testing methods. To reduce test design effort and decrease a possibility of human mistake, it is suitable to support the process by an automated method. In this paper we present the PCTgen, solution, which is open and flexible, available for free to the test designer community and do not assume existence of UML design documentation of certain quality and consistency on the project. The PCTgen is bringing several innovative features as well as the possibility to interchange data with design and test management tools. Together with this solution, an algorithm for the generation of workflow test cases is introduced.

Transformation of IFML Schemas to Automated Tests

  • DOI: 10.1145/2811411.2811556
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/2811411.2811556
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Interaction Flow Modelling Language (IFML) is a recently standardized modelling language designed to capture the structure and properties of the application user interface. In the paper we discuss suitability of the IFML model for automatic generation of automated application front-end tests, as detailed model of the application front-end provides enough information to exercise particular actions in the tested application front-end to verify expected behaviour. Our approach is based on the multi-level transformation of an IFML model to automated tests. The IFML model is converted to an application front-end test model. Then abstract test cases are created from this model using set of defined rules. Finally the abstract test cases are transformed to a particular physical automated test cases using a template engine.

Using the Interaction Flow Modelling Language for Generation of Automated Front–End Tests

  • DOI: 10.15439/2015F392
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.15439/2015F392
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    In the paper we explore the possibilities of automated test-case generation from the IFML model of application front–end. As opposed to the previous core UML standard, IFML captures the structure and properties of the application user interface, which gives us new possibilities in model–based test case generation: produced test cases have a higher probability of being consistent and of respecting the real feasibility of the tests in the tested application. In the presented solution we leverage the capabilities of an IFML model to capture details of front–end components to generate front–end automated tests, exercising particular actions in the tested application front–end to verify its expected behaviour according to an IFML model. The approach is based on the transformation of an IFML model to an application front–end test model — a more straightforward structure for the automated generation of test cases. Then, based on the defined rules, the abstract test cases are created from the model. The abstract test cases are then transformed using a template engine, to particular physical automated test cases which can be run to test the application.

Automated Testing in the Czech Republic: The Current Situation and Issues

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, Volume 883. Rousse: Bulgarian Chapter of ACM, 2014. p. 294-301. ACM International Conference Proceeding Series. ISBN 978-1-4503-2753-4.
  • Rok: 2014
  • DOI: 10.1145/2659532.2659605
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/2659532.2659605
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    The paper brings an overview of the situation in automated testing in the Czech Republic by the beginning of 2014 and analyzes the trend. The results can be, under certain conditions, generalized to the Middle-European region. The analyzed data are collected from a survey of 28 Czech and Slovak professionals in the automated testing, having together 122 years of experience from 147 projects in total. In the survey we focus on the major aspects of the discipline: the economic point of view and technical state of the art.

Change Detection System for the Maintenance of Automated Testing

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: Testing Software and Systems. Berlin: Springer, 2014. pp. 192-197. Lecture Notes in Computer Science. ISSN 0302-9743. ISBN 978-3-662-44856-4.
  • Rok: 2014
  • DOI: 10.1007/978-3-662-44857-1_15
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-662-44857-1_15
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Maintenance of automated test scripts is one of the important factors leading to success and return of investment of the test automation projects. As the key prerequisite to maintain the scripts correctly, we need to be informed about all relevant changes in the project scope, specification or system under test to be able to reflect them in updates of the test scripts. In this paper we introduce a concept on how to track these changes in semi-automated way with acceptable additional effort. The proposed solution is based on automated detection of changes in test management and requirement management tools, combined with optional manual inputs and automated scanning of changes in system under test user interface.

Optimization of the Test Strategy and Efficient Operational Decisions during the Testing of Complex Software Systems: An Approach Based on Simulation of Testing Process

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: International Journal on Information Technologies and Security. 2014, 6(1), 3-14. ISSN 1313-8251.
  • Rok: 2014
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    During testing of extensive software projects, strategic decisions related to test plan have been made. Such decisions have to be done often in time pressure without sufficient analysis, regarding the consequences of the decision in terms of plan and efficiency of testing. To support test managers in such situations, we propose a simulation of planned test process before its real run, allowing also monitoring and evaluation of running testing process. The simulation is disclosing hidden rules, consequences and bottlenecks in the particular testing process and brings more information for managerial decisions during the project.

Pex extension for generating user input validation code for web applications

  • DOI: 10.5220/0004994103150320
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.5220/0004994103150320
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    The code written by a software developer is not always flawless. The more code is created the more errors are introduced into the system. In web development different programming languages can be used to implement back-end and front-end sides of the application. For example, it is possible to implement user input validation multiple times - it validates the input values on client-side using JavaScript before the data is sent to server and then the received data is validated again on the server-side. The logic is duplicated, changes made to the validation code must be synchronised on both sides. All implementations must be also unit tested, which increases the time required to create and maintain multiple sets of unit tests. In this paper, we will describe how white-box testing tool Pex can be extended to generate user input validation code for ASP.NET MVC web applications. The validation code won't be duplicated in JavaScript on the client-side and the application will be protected from sending invalid input values from the client-side. The testers can focus on testing using meaningful data input values. Testing of corner cases can be automated thus saving the available resources - testers involved in testing and time spent on testing.

Reducing user input validation code in web applications using Pex extension

  • DOI: 10.1145/2659532.2659633
  • Odkaz: https://doi.org/10.1145/2659532.2659633
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Validation of user input data is very important in web application. Not only it protects the system from various exploits, but it also improves the user experience. User immediately sees what values are missing or are not valid and should be fixed. It is important to validate code on client side in the browser, but that does not mean that the validation on server side can be omitted. The golden rule of the web applications is not to trust user input and validate code on server side as well. The user input validation is therefore duplicated - it validates the input values first on client side using JavaScript before the data is sent to server and then the received data is validated again on the server side. Changes made to the validation code must be synchronized in code on both sides. All implementations must be also unit tested, multiple sets of unit tests must be created and maintained. We will describe how we extended white-box testing tool Pex to generate user input validation code for web applications created on .NET platform. The JavaScript client side validation code is generated from the controller code written in C#. The code then validates input values on the client side. Most of the testing can be automated executing generated test. Testing resources - i.e time spent on testing and number of testers involved people - are saved.

Finding Common Subsequences in Recorded Test Cases

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Current trends in the agile software development prefer to deliver finished stories with automated tests, which results in a fact that many Quality assurance engineers struggle with the lack of time. Rapidly changing applications prevent them from finishing the automation by the end of the sprint as they cannot develop the tests in advance, and have to wait until the stable deliverable is done. Test recording might help them to resolve the problem as it offers very fast test automation in comparison to other approaches. However, it results in a very expensive and a time demanding test maintenance. In this paper, we present an approach that helps the engineers with the maintenance by introducing a concept of automatically detected reusable parts within the test recordings. Those reusable parts increase the efficiency of the test recording approach, remove its main drawbacks, and help to bring test recording closer to scripting approaches.

BUILDING TEST SUITES FROM TEST RECORDINGS OF WEB

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    BUILDING TEST SUITES FROM TEST RECORDINGS OF WEB, SYSTEM OF SOFTWARE TESTING

Formal specification to support advanced model based testing

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Reliability and correctness of a web application are crucial factors to its success. Errors occurring in nondeterministic moments do not attract the target audience of the application. It is quite impossible to deliver 100% reliable application. Hidden errors are discovered when target users are using the application. With proper tooling and support the time between the error discovery or report and the error elimination can be reduced. In this paper we are proposing formal model for a model based improvement of a testing process of the web application. Our goal is to create a formal model and design a testing framework based on the direct guidance of a tester 1through the testing process, verifying his steps and providing better feedback.

Framework for Better Efficiency of Automated Testing

  • Autoři: Filipský, M., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., doc. Ing. Ivan Jelínek, CSc.,
  • Publikace: Proceedings of The Seventh International Conference on Software Engineering Advances. Silicon Valley: International Academy, Research and Industry Association (IARIA), 2012. pp. 615-618. ISBN 978-1-61208-025-3.
  • Rok: 2012
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Framework for Better Efficiency of Automated Testing, A new system for software testing

Web Software Systems Testing Supported by Model-Based Direct Guidance of the Tester

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    The common approach to software testing based on manual test design and manual execution of test cases can be made more efficient by suitable automation of this process. In the paper we propose new approach to testing process using automated test cases generation for direct tester guidance and system for tester's guidance through the system based on the model of the system. The proposal increases efficiency of manual software testing in terms of effort spent on test design and reliability and accuracy of performed tests.

Manual testing of web software systems supported by direct guidance of the tester based on design model

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Software testing is important stage of development cycle. Current testing process involves tester and electronic documents with test case scenarios. In this paper we focus on new approach to testing process using automated test case generation and tester guidance through the system based on the model of the system. Test case generation and model-based testing is not possible without proper system model. We aim on providing better feedback from the testing process thus eliminating the unnecessary paperwork.

Open Solution for Generation of Draft Test Cases from Design Documentation

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    The paper proposes an open solution for automated generation of draft test cases from software design documentation. By this generation, test design efforts can be efficiently reduced, without losing accuracy or completeness of the prepared test cases. The aim of the solution is maximal adjustability to variety of input formats and local variants of used UML semantics.

Výchova k práci s informacemi a informačními prameny

  • Autoři: Vališová, A., doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D.,
  • Publikace: Pedagogika pro učitele. 2 ed. Praha: Grada, 2011. p. 213-222. ISBN 978-80-247-3357-9.
  • Rok: 2011
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Kapitola se zabývá tématy rozvíjení informačních dovedností u žáků a studentů, využitím elektronických zdrojů v pedagogickém procesu, elektronizace ve výchovně-vzdělávacím procesu, e-learningu a možnosti využití počítače ve škole.

Quality Assurance of Web-based Application: Approach Based on Independent Verification of Analysis and Design

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    The proposal is focusing on situation in web-based application development lifecycle, where potential errors and non-optimalities can be efficiently detected and corrected during the phase of analysis and design. The proposal is based on general formal model, compatible with common UML-based analytical and design models. Based on this model, we propose several verification techniques discovering either design errors or non-optimalities related to real usage of the implemented application.

Framework for Easy and Effective Implementation of Adaptive Features in Web Portal

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Framework for Easy and Effective Implementation of Adaptive Features in Web Portal, Effective Implementation

REUSABLE ADAPTIVE HYPERMEDIA CONTENT - THE APPROACH BASED ON TRANSFORMATION OF THE SOURCE DOCUMENT

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Reusable Adaptive Hypermedia, transformation of the source document, effective adaptive programming

Towards the Reusable User Data in Adaptive Hypermedia Systems - The External Mapping of User Parameters between Systems

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Towards the Reusable User Data in Adaptive Hypermedia Systems - The External Mapping of User Parameters between Systems, effective programming

Automatic Generation of User Model from Non-Trivial Hypermedia in Adaptive E-Learning Hypermedia System

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    This paper deals with formal description of problem, propose algorithm for automated user model generation based on formal description and discuss consequences in adaptive system implementation.

Decision Theorem for Construction of Adaptive Hypermedia System

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Decision Theorem, Adaptive Hypermedia System, web technologies, personalization, general model

Formal Description of Adaptive Web System for E-learning Purposes

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Paper describes the results of IGS grant "Formal Description of Adaptive Web System for E-learning Purposes".

Integration of User Data in Adaptive Hypermedia System

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Integration, User Data, Adaptive Hypermedia System, Adaptive Hypermedia System, web technologies, personalization, general model

SACS - Pilot Implementation of System Providing AICC-Compliant Reusable Adaptive Hypermedia E-Learning Content

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    An E-learning adaptive hypermedia system stores information describing the student and adapts its output in accord to this information by defined rules of adaptation. We can adapt user interface of web application, a way the information is presented to user, or the information itself. Using this approach, ergonomic quality and effectiveness of web applications can be improved. In this paper, we deal with pilot project of server providing AICC-compliant adaptive E-learning courses. The main contribution of this approach is to make adaptive E-learning content compliant to contemporary widespread E-learning standards. By presented approach, adaptive E-learning courses can be accessed form an existing LMS (Learning Management System) without a necessity to change the existing implementation of LMS.

E-Learning adaptive hypermedia system features in relation to characteristics of users

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    The article gives an overview of E-Learning adaptive hypermedia system features in relation to characteristics of users

Formal Description of Change Management in Adaptive E-learning Environment

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., doc. Ing. Ivan Jelínek, CSc.,
  • Publikace: 4th International Conference on Emerging E-learning Technologies and Applications - Conference proceedings. ( Information and Telecommunications Technologies in Education ). Košice: ELFA, 2005. p. 131-137. ISBN 80-8086-016-6.
  • Rok: 2005
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Basic principle of an adaptive hypermedia system is production of web application output adapted in accord to particular user's characteristics.

Implementation of Adaptive Features in Existing Nonadaptive Web Applications

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    The paper proposes a method for implementation of adaptive features in common non-adaptive web applications. The solution is based on formal description of adaptive hypermedia system.

Methodology of E-learning Adaptive Hypermedia System Implementation: Automated Verification of Adaptive Course Output

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Paper describes formal algorithm for automated verification of adaptive course output.

Nová generace webových technologií

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Návrh a implementace aplikací na webu vychází ze základů teorie počítačů, informačních a databázových systémů, počítačových sítí a softwarového inženýrství. K tomu však přistupuje i požadavek znalosti speciálních počítačových technologií, které jsou charakteristické pro konkrétní webovou aplikaci. Návrh webové aplikace tedy vyžaduje znalost i dalších disciplín, které přímo nepatří do oblasti informačních technologií ale souvisí s aplikační oblastí. Toto propojení a integrace disciplín blízkých informačním technologiím (IT) na straně jedné a disciplín zcela odlišných na straně druhé, představuje jedinečnou výzvu pro výzkum a další vývoj.

Reusable Adaptive Hypermedia E-learning Content Using AICC and SCORM

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Adaptive hypermedia systems can be used in E-learning to improve efficiency and ergonomic quality of producing information. E-learning adaptive hypermedia system stores information about particular user in his profile and adapt its output in correspondence to user's state of knowledge, preferences or specific needs. In contemporary state of area, the most experimental adaptive systems are closed and possibility of e-learning content interchange between systems is not solved satisfactory. For that reason, this paper deals with problem of creating of reusable adaptive hypermedia content using two established e-learning standards, AICC and SCORM. Principles of e-learning standards usage in adaptive hypermedia systems are presented and pilot project implementation introduced.

The Effective Optimization of Change Process in Adaptive Web

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    An adaptive web application (also known by term adaptive hypermedia system) changes dynamically its output in correspondence to specific information of particular user, stored in his profile. This information in profile can be altered via feedback functionality during the run of the system. The technology of adaptive web is one of the promising future Internet technologies. However, this technology has also its drawbacks. One of them is possible user confusion connected with changes in system interface. When working environment changes too much, user is confused and reacts negatively. In this paper, we propose a solution to this problem by defining an automated algorithm to change calibration in adaptive hypermedia system.

Using AICC to Create Reusable Adaptive Hypermedia E-learning Content

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    In this paper we propose method of adaptive hypermedia E-learning courses construction using AICC communication standard. This proposal is based on formal description of adaptive hypermedia course topology and its mapping to AICC communication structure.

Zvýšení efektivity e-learningu využitím individuálního přizpůsobení systému studentovi

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Principem technologie adaptivních hypermédií je přizpůsobení výstupu systému konkrétnímu uživateli. Tato inovativní technologie má aplikace v různých oblastech počítačových systémů. Jednou z nejvýznamnějších oblastí je E-learning, kde vhodná adaptace výukového dokumentu může zvýšit efektivitu elektronického distančního vzdělávání. Článek se zabývá konkrétními ukázkami možností adaptace výukového hypermédia podle stavu znalostí nebo individuálních preferencí studenta. Dále je představen princip a témata metodiky ASIM, která je vyvíjena jako základ efektivní implementace adaptivních E-learningových aplikací, dostupné širší vývojářské a pedagogické komunitě.

Acquiring the Exact Users Feedback Data in Context of E-learning Hypermedia Adaptation Process

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    This article deals with a formal description of exact user's feedback data acquiring in the E-learning hypermedia adaptation process. In general, adaptive hypermedia systems needs information about its particular students to adapt particular output in correspondence to student's characteristic.

Adaptivní přístup ke studentovi a zkušenosti z projektu s různorodou cílovou skupinou

  • Autoři: doc. Ing. Miroslav Bureš, Ph.D., Fiala, B., Moll, I., Moll, P.
  • Publikace: III. národní konference Distanční vzdělávání v České Republice - Sborník přispěvků. Praha: Centrum pro studium vysokého školství, 2004, pp. 40-43.
  • Rok: 2004
  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Základní myšlenkou adaptivního přístupu je respektování odlišnosti jednotlivých uživatelů. Uživatelé mají často rozdílné schopnosti, preference i své specifické potřeby. Zde pak záleží na konkrétní aplikaci - adaptovat můžeme uživatelské rozhraní aplikace, formu podávání informací i samotný informační obsah. Cílem je kromě zvýšení efektivity a ergonomické kvality podávání informací.

Adaptivní webové systémy a hodnocení kvality hypermediálních dokumentu

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Základní myšlenkou adaptivního přístupu je respektování odlišnosti jednotlivých uživatelů, popřípadě studentů. Cílem adaptivních webových systémů je zvýšit efektivitu a ergonomickou kvalitu podávání informací. Adaptovat můžeme uživatelské rozhraní aplikace, formu podávání informací i samotný informační obsah. V rámci své práce jsem navrhl formální popis adaptivního webového systému, který bude sloužit jako teoretický základ pro další výzkum v této oblasti a především jako výchozí teorie pro automatizovanou implementaci adaptivních webových systémů. Nedílnou součástí práce je vývoj systému pro hodnocení kvality hypermediálních a výukových dokumentů, poskytující potřebnou zpětnou vazbu. Článek se zabývá popisem problematiky adaptivních webových systémů, principy navrženého formálního popisu a systému hodnocení kvality hypermediálních dokumentů.

Adaptivní webové systémy jako řešení pro uživatele se specifickými potřebami

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Základní myšlenkou adaptivního přístupu je respektování odlišnosti jednotlivých uživatelů. Uživatelé mají často rozdílné schopnosti, preference i své specifické potřeby. Zde pak záleží na konkrétní aplikaci - adaptovat můžeme uživatelské rozhraní aplikace, formu podávání informací i samotný informační obsah. Cílem je kromě zvýšení efektivity a ergonomické kvality podávání informací především také zpřístupnění systému pro uživatele se specifickými potřebami. Tedy návrh systému, který bude vhodným způsobem své chování přizpůsobovat konkrétnímu uživateli. Tento článek se zabývá principem adaptivních webových systémů a výzkumem této oblasti probíhajícím v rámci odborné skupiny Webing.

Co jsou adaptivní hypermédia?

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Článek se zabývá novou technologií adaptivních hypermédií a jejich aplikacemi v e-learningu.

Description of the Adaptive Web System for Elearning

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    This article deals with principle of designed formal description of the adaptive web system. Basic motivation for creating adaptive web systems is the difference between individual users. Adaptive web system monitors particular user's behavior and characteristics. Based on them, the system compiles resultant, adapted, document. This document corresponds to user's qualification, capability, preferences and his specific needs. Formal description of adaptive websystem is needful for unified communication platform in this realm, exact description of adaptive document behavior, automated implementation of adaptive web systems and next research (e.g. suitable levels of adaptivity).

Formal Description of the Adaptive Web System for E-learning

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Paper proposes a new schema of formal description of adaptive web system, proposed formal system is tested on e-learning application.

Particular Design of Structure for Exact Evaluation of E-learning Hypermedia Documents in Context of Hypermedia Adaptation Process

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    This article deals with particular formal design of structure for exact evaluation of e-learning hypermedia document. Used description is based on the formal theory designed for purpose of adaptive hypermedia system. Nevertheless, it can be used separately from the adaptive web technology. For keeping the context, there will be basic description of adaptive hypermedia system given in introduction of this article. Then, description of design of particular evaluation structure follows.

Perspektivy využívání e-learningu a pedagogická praxe

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Příspěvek diskutuje současné perspektivy webového inženýrství v e-learningu.

Počítač jako učitel

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Článek se zabyvá základním přehledem současného stavu e-learningu a popisem jednotlivych technologií.

Formální popis adaptivního webového systému

Hodnocení kvality webových výukových dokumentů

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Kvalitou webového výukového dokumentu budeme rozumět sadu měřitelných veličin (parametrů) získaných testy tohoto dokumentu. Článek se věnuje oblastem kterých se tyto veličiny budou týkat a principům testů kterými se získají. Systém pro testování kvality a hodnocení webových výukových dokumentů by měl být nedílnou součástí vývoje každého e-learningového systému.

Koncepce a technologie pro budoucí rozvoj E-learningu

  • Pracoviště: Katedra počítačů
  • Anotace:
    Současné formy e-learningu jsou ovlivněny jak možnostmi dostupných technologií, které jsou používány pro tvorbu software, tak obecnými přístupy a fenomény v oblasti informačních technologií. Jedním z budoucích směrů je rozvoj adaptivního, personalizovaného webu a v souvislosti s ním adaptivního e-learningu. Základní myšlenkou adaptivního přístupu je respektování odlišnosti jednotlivých uživatelů. Adaptovat můžeme uživatelské rozhraní aplikace, formu podávání informací i samotný informační obsah.

Velká databáze pro strukturovaná data

Za stránku zodpovídá: Ing. Mgr. Radovan Suk